Spice-cakes have been very popular in our country since ancient times. They were prepared with different varieties, types and sizes from small gingerbreads weighing only a few grams to huge gingerbread and carpets weighing 1-1,5 kg. From the dough products were stamped using special stamps - gingerbread boards ("printed gingerbread").
One of the characteristics of gingerbread dough is that it usually contains a lot of spices, giving it a special flavor. Probably, the very name "gingerbread" came from the word "spice". A mixture of spices, added to a gingerbread test, is called a "bouquet". Here, for example, the composition of one of these bouquets (in%): cinnamon 40, clove 12, sweet pepper 12, black pepper 4, tubeless 8, nutmeg 12, cardamom 4, ginger 8.
Gingerbread is characterized by a high content of sugar, honey, molasses, but it has little fat. Flour for dough should be with a low content of gluten (26-28%). Loosen the dough with chemical disintegrants, since a high sugar content and low humidity inhibit the development of yeast.
Prepare the dough in two ways: raw and custard. With the brewed method, a part of the flour is brewed before kneading the dough.
Features of the recipe and the preparation of gingerbread contribute to the fact that many of their species can persist for a long time, not stale. Staling of flour products is a very complicated process, connected with the aging of starch jelly. When baking, starch is gelatinized, binds a large amount of water and turns into jelly. In the process of storage in the jelly, the starch particles regroup, it thickens, its ability to bind water decreases, and the jelly, as they say, "grows old." This process also causes staling of flour products. Planking is expressed in that the surface crust of them loses its fragility, becomes elastic, the crumb becomes crumbly, and then when dried it is very dense.
In the gingerbread dough enters honey and molasses, which delay the process of staling. In addition, very strongly delaying staling of brewing flour and invert syrup.
1000 flour, 300 sugar, 200 water, 100 syrup, 100 honey, 100 eggs or mint, 100 butter or margarine, 8 ammonium, 4 soda, 5 dry spices, 50 sugar.
Preparation of the dough by the raw method. Honey, molasses and burnt are mixed, heated to 40-50 ° and filtered through a sieve into the kneading machine, poured cold * water, add eggs or melange, granulated sugar turn on the machine
1 Sugar with large crystals during dough kneading and baking may not dissolve, as a result of which the quality of the 'finished products' deteriorates. Therefore, such sugar should be preheated with water, stirring until it is completely dissolved, and then cooled to 20 — 30 °.
And knead the mixture for 2-3 min. After that, put finely mashed spices, soda, dissolved in water ammonium carbonate, mashed butter or margarine, flour and knead the dough 10-15 min.
If invert syrup is introduced into the dough, then soda and finely ground ammonium is mixed with flour and the dough is no more than a month 5 minutes.
The mixed dough should have a temperature not higher than 22 °, as at a higher temperature it sticks to the table, the rolling pin and the notches, and at a lower temperature the dough is difficult to roll out onto the seams.
Humidity of raw dough should be within 24-26%. If the percentage of moisture is higher, the dough is poorly molded, the products are blurry with compacted pores, sometimes when baking they stick to the baking tray and bubbles form on the bottoms. When the humidity of the dough is insufficient, products of small volume with coarse edges are obtained.
You can knead the dough by hand. When making small portions of dough, the flour is sifted onto a table (6-8% of flour is left for the dust), mix it with baking powder and give it a funnel shape into which the prepared liquid is filtered, after which softened oil is added. Hand move the flour to the center, mixing with the liquid. When part of the flour (about 50%) is connected to the liquid, all flour is mixed quickly with rapid movements until the dough acquires a uniform consistency.
When making large portions, the dough is kneaded in a trough or boiler. In strained syrup, stirring, add all the products except flour, then pour in the flour and mix the dough with both hands until half-ready, ie, until kneading it will be difficult. After this, with both hands, pluck a piece of semi-mixed dough weighing 1,5-2 kg and knead it on the table so that it becomes homogeneous. A piece of kneaded dough is left on a table dusted with flour. The next kneaded piece is put on top of the first one and so kneaded and stacked all the dough. If the laid pieces of the dough are not homogeneous in consistency, then they are cut from the top to the bottom into pieces, mixed again and stacked one on top of the other.
Preparation of the dough by a brewed method. The preparation process of this test consists of three phases: preparing the brewing, cooling it and kneading the dough. Depending on the type of gingerbread, flour is brewed on sugar-honey or sugar-treacle syrup.
Prepare and cool the tea leaves as follows: in the open cooking pot, load sugar, honey, molasses, pour in water and, stirring, heat the mixture to 70-75 °, i.e., until a clear syrup is obtained. Syrup filter through a frequent sieve in a different dish or kneading machine, cool it to a temperature not lower than 65 °, add the sifted flour (leaving a little for the dust) and knead. The process of mixing flour with hot syrup should proceed as quickly as possible, since with prolonged contact of unplaced flour with hot syrup, lumps are formed which are difficult to stir later. The moisture content of the welding must be 19-20%.
If the recipe provides for a lot of eggs and butter, then a part of the flour is brewed, and the remaining flour is used for mixing the dough, leaving 6-8% for the dust.
To the hot brewed test, do not add leavening agents and aromatics, as it loses its properties, so the dough is spread on a greased baking sheet and cooled to 25-27 °.
Mix the brewed dough in this way: put the cooled brew in the dough mixer, add the other prepared products prescribed by the recipe, and knead the dough for 30 min. (Figure 29).
When making a small amount of dough (up to 5 kg) in the tea leaves laid on the table, make a groove in which the mashed butter, eggs, spices, baking powder left for kneading the flour is put and mixed until a homogeneous dough is obtained.
If a large quantity of dough is prepared, then the tea leaves are divided into 10 equal in weight pieces, one of them is mixed with the products prescribed by the recipe. Then this amount of dough is divided into nine equal parts, which are added to the remaining nine parts of the brewed dough. Each piece of the dough is alternately mixed and stacked one on top of the other on a table dusted with flour. The resulting large piece of dough is cut from top to bottom into small pieces and again each of them is well kneaded to obtain a dough of a uniform consistency.
Roll and pastry. Before rolling out from the dough, tear off a small piece and bake it to determine the quality of the dough. After this, they begin to form the products. To do this, separate a small piece, punch it on a table, slightly dusted with flour, and form, giving a rectangular shape. Then, abundantly dusting the table and a piece of dough with flour, roll it out evenly in all directions, starting from the middle. As soon as the dough begins to stick to the table and to the rolling pin, it is sprinkled with flour and rolled onto a rolling pin. If the dough with this hardly lags behind the table, it is cut with a knife. The table is dusted again and, having unfolded the dough layer, continue to roll it up to the required thickness. To determine the thickness of the formation, it is cut in several places with a knife and, lifting the cut side, determine the thickness of the formation at a given location.
Fig. 29. The brewing scheme for biscuits
From the test bed with a knife or with the help of notches cut out products of various shapes. That the dough does not stick, it is sent with flour. When laying on baking sheets, the flour from the products is swept away with a brush.
Gingerbreads from a steep dough are placed on dry sheets, and from a weak one to sheets, dusted with flour or oiled. On the gingerbread that adheres to the sheet, voids are formed, and their bottoms turn out to be torn.
The dough sheets, which are lubricated with an egg, must dry before forming to make it easier to mold the products, but it is best to lubricate the products after the cutting; For this they are placed on sheets, moistened with warm water or warm water, mixed with fat. In this case, the products slightly adhere to the sheet and do not shift when lubricated.
Gingerbread is baked at 200-240 ° for 10-15 minutes, immediately after cutting, and carpet at 190-210 ° for 30-40 min. At a higher temperature, the products are baked more quickly, but their surface begins to char, and the lower layers turn into a dense crust, so you can not raise the baking temperature.
Gingerbread, smeared with egg, is baked in an oven without steam, and gingerbread, not smeared with eggs, in an oven with a small amount of steam, which improves the brilliance of the crusts.
After baking gingerbread, greased with egg, for a better shine rub several times with a soft brush. Gingerbread can also be filled with sugar syrup for circulation (recipe 18).
The following are defects that can occur in the manufacture of cakes.
|Solid products||Many sugary substances or little leavening agents|
|Products vague||Soft dough, a lot of soda; Bad gluten|
|Products tough rezinistye||little sugar|
|Upper crust is separated||Very soft dough, the oven is overheated|
|Iron moves, fire||Dough soft and a lot of baking powder|
|Products with empty bottoms||The dough is dense, the oven is underheated|
567 flour, 351 sugar, 0,34 mint oil or 4,5 vanilla essence, 190 water, 5 ammonium, 14 refined vegetable oil; Flour for sawing 44; Vegetable oil for lubrication of trays 5. Exit 1000, g. (40 pcs by 25 g).
In hot water, sugar is dissolved. The resulting syrup is cooled to 20 ° and water dissolved or finely ground ammonium carbonate, vegetable oil, mint oil or mint essence is added and the dough is quickly kneaded. From the dough, a tourniquet is rolled up, cut into pieces with a weight of 27-28 g, rolled into round balls, laid on greased with vegetable oil baking sheets, pressed down with a round wooden stencil, dried 10-15 min. And baked in ovens without steam for 7-8 min. At 170-180 °.
You can mold gingerbread differently: the dough is rolled into a layer about 1 cm thick and metal cuts cut out products of different shapes, after which they are pressed down with a wooden stencil.
Quality requirements: gingerbreads are round, slightly flattened from the top, with a pronounced pattern; Color white, smell of mint, crumb porous, easily breaks; Humidity 13,5%.
2687 flour, 1130 sugar, 430 syrup, 215 margarine, 13 vanilla powder, 7 soda, 19 ammonium, 650 water; Flour for sawing 210; Sugar for strewing products 323; Vegetable oil for lubrication of trays 0,5. Output 100 pcs. By 50
The dough is prepared in a raw way. Roll the layer thickness of 6-7 mm, sprinkle with sugar, apply a pattern of corrugated-
Fig. 30. Pryhotovlenye korzhykov
Bath or waffle rolling pin and a round notch with a diameter of 95 mm cut out flat cakes. The products are put on a baking tray, oiled, and baked at 190-200 ° (Figure 30).
Requirements for quality: products of round shape with a patterned surface, sprinkled with sugar; Edges lined with denticles, color gray-yellow; Humidity 13%.
Wheat flour 4400, 2200 sugar, 1000 cream margarine, 300 melange, 800 whole milk, 20 soda, 40 ammonium, 2 vanillin. Output 100 pcs. By 75
The dough is prepared in a raw way and cut like sugar loaves (recipe 78). Weight of semi-finished product for each biscuit 81-83
Requirements for quality are the same as for sugar cakes. Humidity 14,5%.
For the test: flour 1-th grade 1684, trim from 1398 cakes, sugar 1549, ammonium 17, dry perfume 29, melange 355, water 500; For the burnt (recipe 20): sugar 42, water 20; Flour for sawing 131; Melange for the lubrication of the 100 loaf. Output 100 pcs. By 50
The dough is prepared in a raw way, but when mixed add crushed and sifted crumbs from cakes and pastries.
Fig. 31. Disc cutter
Roll the dough with a control roller into a layer thickness of 10 mm and cut using two incisors. The distance between the discs at one cutter is 65 mm, and the other - 120 mm. With the pro-
Fig. 32. Preparation of children's loaves
Kate one cutter along the layer along, and the other side-by-side produce gingerbread of the same size and weight (Fig. 31). Formed gingerbread cookies are laid on a baking tray, oiled with egg, put drawing by fork and bake at 210-220 ° (Figure 32),
Requirements for quality: loaves are rectangular, shiny, brown with a pattern on the surface; On the fracture of small pores, without swelling; Aroma spicy; Humidity 14%.
For the test: 2 485 flour, 218 sugar, 111 honey, 87 syrup, 3 ammonium, 2 soda, 1 cinnamon, 0,2 clove; For the burnt (recipe 20): sugar 3, water 90; Flour for sawing 38; For syrup (recipe 18): sugar 48, water 30. Exit 1000
Dough prepared in a raw way is rolled in
Layer of the size of the baking tray, and a thickness of 1,5-2 cm, roll on a rolling pin and unfold on a baking tray lightly sprinkled with flour. The flour is swept away with a brush from the surface of the layer, after which it is lubricated with water using a brush.
Fig. 33. South Carpet
To prevent swelling during baking, the layer is punctured in several places with a stick and baked at a temperature of 200-220 °. After baking and cooling, the surface of the layer is glazed with sugar circulation, the glaze is hardened and cut into rectangular pieces, after which it is cut into portions.
Requirements for quality: products of rectangular shape or entire layers with a shiny glazed surface, cut into even pieces; The color of the crumb is brown; Taste and smell sweet with the aroma of spices; Humidity 15% (Figure 33).
Honey gingerbread with filling
For the test: 437 flour, 131 sugar, 219 honey, 44 dining room margarine, 1 soda, 3,5 ammonium, 2,6 dry perfume, 60 water; For syrup (recipe 18): sugar 35, water 14; For the filling (recipe 14): sugar 16, jam 141; Flour for sawing 34; Vegetable oil for lubrication of trays 1. Exit 1000
The brewed dough is rolled into two layers of thickness 7-8 mm, put on a dusted baking sheet and bake at 210-220 °. Chilled layers are glued together with a fruit filling, which is pre-boiled with sugar. Glaze the layer with syrup, otherwise prepare the rug as it is described in the recipe "Gingerbread Dough".
Quality requirements see "Kovrizhka Yuzhnaya", in addition, this rug consists of two layers, glued together with fruit filling.
1 2730 flour, 820 sugar, 1365 honey, 82 mint, 14 soda, 27 ammonium, 8 dry perfume, 300 water; Flour for 213 dusting; Melange for lubrication of 98 loaves; Vegetable oil for the lubrication of sheets 10. Output 100 pcs. By 50
The dough is prepared by the brewed method, after which the layer is rolled out with a thickness of 7 — 8 mm. An oval cutout, 65 × 120 mm in size, cut out products from it, sweep flour from them and put it on a baking sheet greased with oil mixed with water. The surface of the product is smeared with an egg, after which a pattern is applied with a fork. Bake for 12 — 15 min. at 200 — 210 °,
Requirements for quality see "Baby loaves"; Humidity 13%].
For the test: 520 flour, 244 sugar, 73 honey, 62 treacle, 13 vegetable oil, 3 spices, 3 ammonium, 2 soda, 100 water; Flour for 40 dusting; For syrup (recipe 18): sugar 36, water 10.
From the dough prepared in a brewed way, roll out strands with a diameter of 10-12 mm, dust them with flour, lay on 5-6 bundles next to them and cut them into small pieces. After that, pieces of dough rolled into balls with their hands or put them into a thunder and circular movements of the rumble give them a round shape. On a greased baking sheet, put the dough balls tightly one to the next and bake at a temperature of 210-220 °. After baking and cooling, the carpet is glazed with sugar syrup - circulation.