1. Cooker for gummiobraznyh and jelly masses
1.1. Famous Cooking Systems
Used cooking system:
- direct heating
- indirect heating.
When performing the cooking apparatus is taken into account more or less pronounced tendency of gelling agents and thickeners to overcooking and precipitation of.
Cooker with indirect heating
We are talking about coils cooker with various embodiments of the coil performance to prevent the formation of plaque on the heating surface.
This may include the following options:
- flattened cross section of the coil to increase the flow rate at the side walls,
- additional devices in the coil to create turbulence
- sharp turns and abrupt changes in the direction of movement of the jelly mass during the passage of the coil
The heated mass is moving through the more or less geometrically different coils. The coolant (steam) is washed by the coil.
Due to pressure control by using the installed airbag outlet valve apparatus preventing boiling, i.e. cooker at a water content in the jelly mass is not changed.
Only after the evaporation or vacuum container evaporates part of the prescription of water.
These cookers with indirect heating worked well in the manufacture of jelly masses, which are primarily known in the European market, in spite of the tendency to overcooking, which leads to a reduction in cleaning intervals and are not ideal indicators for heat transfer.
It is mainly the products of the formulations based on gelatin, pectin or agar-agar with a relatively low cooking temperatures.
However, certain products, especially based on starch at these cooking devices can not produce high quality.
The property of increasing viscosity with increasing heating causes too rapid and intensive heating deposition on the surface.
Cooker with direct heating (Jet-Kocher)
Jet-Kocher is not the cooker in the direct sense of the word, because in him
water is injected directly into the mass as a vapor, instead of the mass evaporated.
Introduced in the steam mass leads to a temporary increase in temperature and water content, as required for the opening of the starch.
Reduction of water content is performed, as in cooking apparatus with indirect heating, in subsequent evaporating vessels and vacuum.
Jet-Kocher still used mainly for products based on starch, known primarily for the American market with high amylose starches formulations, which require relatively high temperatures to 160 ° C.
The advantage of this technology is relatively simple technical solution and the absence of heating surfaces, which can be burnt mass of jelly.
The disadvantage is the direct contact of steam with the product.
It is necessary to ensure that the pair had been cleared of harmful ingredients and that fulfills all the requirements of food law.
Although modern Steam Generating Units fully meet these requirements, the injection of steam into the mass causes the sometimes unpleasant feeling.
JellyStar this cooker universal action, the scope of which is not limited to jelly masses.
It applies to all used gelling agents, including starch and reveals the mixture of gelling agents.
We are talking about the cooker with indirect heating, in which the jelly mass is moving in the cooker from the bottom up.
But in contrast to the system described before that, here steam flows in the tube bundle, and the jelly mass is washed outside the tubes.
The interior of the cooker is divided into floors, which crosses the jelly mass in the transverse direction.
Conditional cross-flow direction, and turns from floor to floor, in the mass, there are constant changes in the direction of flow and turbulence, which prevents uncontrolled time staying on the surface of the mass and heat inside the beam pipe.
It provides the following benefits:
- very good power transmission
- low vapor pressure
- small difference between steam and product temperatures
- low pressure loss flow
Interconnection reflux temperature and dry matter content for all caramel mass graphically depicted in cooking curve.
In industrial production JellyStar used under the following conditions:
Strictly speaking, we are not talking about cooking, but only on heating.
As already described, in the cooker heats gummiobraznoy or jelly mass without evaporating water.
For the most part, the mass of gelatin or pectin are heated up to max. 105- 110 ° C, the formulation is significantly higher starch (up 160 ° C).
The final proportion of dry matter is determined solely by the content of incoming water, because cooking temperature and vacuum value are fixed.
For comparison: in cooking appliances with direct heating
Jet-Kocher usually before entering jelly mass is heated to 90 ° C.
As described, due to condensation temperature of the steam injection and the proportion of water initially increased, then because of the subsequent discharge in a vacuum and the evaporation prescription water temperature and the proportion of water is reduced again.
Melting at atmospheric pressure
In some cases, it is necessary to increase the content of the incoming water. It may be, for example, in cases where the cooker is loaded very small amount of prescription weight of gelatin and Evacuated mass seems too bubbly.
In these cases, it is possible that due to the technically conditioned extremely soft heating finely dispersed and partially dissolved air is removed enough.
Correct this effect can be achieved by adding additional water to the initial mixture. But in this case, an overpressure can not be achieved the desired amount of dry matter in the final produete.
When cooking in the atmosphere as possible, which requires using the pressure valve by reducing the pressure in the vacuum to atmospheric pressure.
Melting under a certain overpressure.
Cooking starch jelly requires special attention. The most important criterion is here along with the desired water content in the product after the end of cooking, as starch achieving the optimum degree of opening.
Results of trials have shown that certain types of starch, the desired degree of opening at preset high temperatures without boiling has been reached in the cooker.
Therefore needed to find opportunities: the influence of the degree of starch autopsy.
The degree of opening, which is established by calculating the starch particles are not exposed to polarized light microscope, affect:
- time of stay in this temperature
- the proportion of prescription water.
The required temperature is set supplier of starch.
The residence time of a fixed and depends on the size of the cooker.
The Rx boiling water at normal overpressure is also set.
Since starch cooked mass is still performed satisfactorily for cooking apparatuses Jet-Kocher, and the prescribed quantities of starch suppliers are based on experience in these devices.
Increase the cooking temperature can only be limited, primarily due to the thermal mass change.
The residence time of the mass in the cooker is also fixed.
Success is achieved by cooking at a certain overpressure.
Here, the basic principle of boiling at atmospheric pressure is further developed: in a formulation increases the water content, which is then vaporized in the cooker.
Realiziruetsya by cooking it at a higher temperature with a certain pressure transfer.
Our expertise and experience of our customers when working on iePuBІag shows that you can work even with a much lower temperature than specified, thus better preserving the product.
JellyStar is usually installed in line.
Performance depending on the design and operating conditions, up to 6 t / h.
Relatively simple installation for the production of the whole range of gummiobraznyh and jelly products.
On ris.7 you see the installation, designed specially to order, with the preparation of solutions of gelling agents and a special way of adding gelatin solution in cooked weight of starch prior to evaporation.
Fig. 8 shows part of the apparatus for cooking jelly masses, with one frame placed JellyStar, evaporation capacity, vacuum pump, pump discharge, as well as the control cabinet.
In most cases, JellyStar can be easily installed on existing installation.
JellyStar 2012 is the core of modern plants for the manufacture of gummiobraznyh and jelly masses.
It goes without saying that the plant in accordance with the requirements and wishes of our customers are equipped with all the known systems for process control and monitoring.
In college for training is also available for users JellyStar impressions and experiences. Plants are mobile and can be used to conduct experiments on the customer's premises.
Comparative table: "pump discharge" and "unloading auger"
(Klöckner Hansel - Sucoma for caramel casting masses)
|pump with||Auger with dynamic smesitelem||Note|
|vacuum depth||Max. - 0,5 bar||Max. - 0,95 bar||Optimum sealing and unloading auger also at extremely high vacuum|
|(max. - 0,3 for fat-containing masses)||(Max. -0,6 For fat-containing mass)||Level of mass above the screw is not required - first in - first out principle|
|Short stay time - important for creamy caramel masses.|
|Temperature||More 135 ° C||120- 145 ° С||It covers the needs of the casting machine with respect to the viscosity of the products. Extremely flexible thanks to a wide range of variability in boiling temperature, degree of vacuum and heating the mixing screw for:|
|1.sugarless caramel (cooking under continuous vacuum)|
|3.light creamy caramel masses (cooking under continuous vacuum)|
|The ratio of sugar / molasses||Max. 50 / 50||Max. 60 / 40||Disclosure of flavor|
|<font><font>Materials</font></font>||+ / -||+ + +||Very good properties dynamic mixer for mixing the liquid and crystalline components. Here, specifically titanium dioxide, which makes high demands on the mixer|
|Placement||Near||over||When unloading auger treatment time (residence) less|
Advantages of the "screw" technology when unloading caramel mass
- Perhaps the ratio of sugar-syrup: up to 60% sugar and only 40% molasses
Effect: - saving material costs.
- the best disclosure of aroma in a mass
- the product is more crisp
- the system is able to operate at a higher vacuum, while it is possible to achieve a lower residual moisture content at a lower discharge temperature, especially designed for the manufacture of sugar-free products based on isomalt
- 100% - continuous volumetric flow with screw discharge ensures dosing of flavors in the mixing system strictly according to the recipe
- constant sugar viscosity - a prerequisite for the casting of high-quality caramel with a striped shell
- small inversion due to low mass temperature - saves the product, there is no loss of aroma
- no caramelization occurs when cooking under constant vacuum
- Perhaps the increased milk content in the recipe
- dyes, flavors, acids, titanium dioxide and other additives very uniformly at the optimum temperature of the casting interfere in the closed mixing system in the caramel mass
- the basis for the highest quality and safety of the product
The process of appliances in the manufacture and processing of fondant
Lipstick - dispersion of the smallest crystals of sucrose in a saturated solution of sugar syrup. Due to the presence of many particles of sucrose crystals, lipstick looks milky white. Fondant usually contains:
9-14 percent water
25 - 80 percent sucrose
to 20 percent than sucrose sugar substances such as molasses or dry weight invertsahar
According to Lee and Jackson, the particle sizes for a good fondant are within 5-30 μm, moreover, the main quantity has dimensions 12 - 17 μm. Some of the crystals with sizes smaller than 20 –25 μm are not essential for taste perception, only with sizes above 20 - 30 μm, the crystals feel as rough in the tongue.
To keep quality lipstick, the width of the particle size range is important. When the lipstick is heated, the crystals dissolve, they decrease. The dissolution rate of crystals is directly proportional to their surface. Since the ratio of the surface area of the crystals to their weight for small crystals is larger than for large crystals, when heated, small crystals dissolve much faster than large ones and at the same time completely. In the reverse process only the existing crystals grow, but no new ones are formed. To ensure that the lipstick does not change due to temperature fluctuations, it is required that the lipstick condition be homodisperse, rather than heterodisperse. Lip homogeneity refers to the ratio of the minimum particle sizes to the maximum of about 1: 4. With heterodispersity, this ratio is approximately equal to 1: 10.
Lipstick, cooked in the oven
|more 20 microns||3||2||7||2||10|
In 1 table shows the values of particle 5 samples of lipstick manufactured in the oven.
But not only one particle size faaktor decisive for the quality characteristics of lipstick and consistency. It depends essentially on the following factors: (Table 2)
Factors affecting the consistency of lipstick:
1. The ratio between the liquid and solid phases (depending on the water content, and the relation between sucrose sugars nesaharoznymi)
2. The composition of the liquid phase and its viscosity (SV type and sugars nesaharoznyh%)
3. The spectrum of particle sizes in a liquid phase