When entering the confectionery factory of fresh milk in large quantities, exceeding the daily requirement, it is recommended to store it in a specially equipped cooling chamber.
Cooling temperature, milk set depending on the length of storage time.
|Storage duration (hours)||Температура охлаждения (в °)|
Tanks for receiving and intermediate storage of milk made from stainless steel sheet, tinned (tinned brand 01 or 02) or other special materials.
A small amount of milk stored in tinned iron cans with lids, provided with rubber gaskets.
During the storage of milk laboratory should control its acidity. Increased acidity (but not more than 40 °) can be reduced to 18 ° methods, admitted bodies San supervision.
To reduce the acidity of the milk is allowed to use an aqueous solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and only in extreme cases, when there are difficulties in getting drinking soda, ammonia water.
In the latter case, must strictly observe the safety rules provided for work with ammonia.
Baking soda and ammonia must comply with:
- soda bicarbonate GOST 2156-52; Medical grade;
- aqueous ammonia GOST 3760-47 alcohol or ammonia Medical GOST 786-41.
Soda is weighed on the technical balance and is prepared therefrom 8,5% solution of: for each kilogram of soda added 11 l boiled and cooled water 38 ° until all are thoroughly mixed until complete dissolution of baking soda.
The resulting solution was filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 0,5 mm, and then used to reduce the acidity of milk.
In the case of an aqueous solution of ammonia to reduce its acidity number of milk is calculated by the formula
where: SC-required volume in ml of aqueous ammonia;
Ʀ - the acidity of milk ° to reduce it;
T - aqueous ammonia titre, expressed with respect to the (normal ammonia solution (ammonia 0,01703 g 1 ml) corresponding 1 ml N acid solution.
The required amount of baking soda to reduce kislotnotnosti milk can be determined from Table. 9.
9 Table. Kolichestvo.pitevoy soda (in kg) to reduce acidity
|Number of milk per liter||Kslotnost in о|
To prevent the volatilization of ammonia solution was poured into it through a rubber or a metal tube, the end of which: should be omitted in the milk.
To extend the shelf life of milk, it can be subjected to a primary heat treatment - pasteurization or sterilization.
During the pasteurization of milk decreases sharply total microflora, pathogenic bacteria are destroyed, attenuated activity of enzymes contributing to spoilage of milk.
They are used three types of pasteurization:
- continuous pasteurization - heating to 63 ° followed by holding at this temperature 30 minutes;
- short pasteurization - heating to 72-75 ° and held at this temperature 15-20 seconds;
- instant pasteurization - heating to 85-90 ° without exposure.
For the pasteurization of milk used equipment used for these purposes in the dairy industry, and confectionery equipment companies (temperature machines, cooking equipment, etc.).
If necessary, the complete destruction of bacteria and their spores sterilization of milk by boiling it at 115-120 ° within 12-18 minutes or at 103-105 ° within 35-40 minutes.
Intrashop transport milk produced by a piston, centrifugal and rotary gear pumps.
Dosing of milk produced according to the formulation by weighing on special scales on conventional commodity weights or by measuring dimensional volumetric Kleimenov utensils or dipstick various designs used for liquids. Fresh milk before use in production must be protsezheno through sieve no more 0,5 mm.
Whole sweetened condensed skim milk and previously warmed to a temperature not higher 40 ° or diluted with water, filtered through a sieve with a hole diameter of not more than 0,5 mm.
Dried whole or skim milk prior to initial production is dissolved in water by calculation on the fresh milk and filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of less than or 0,5 mm sieved through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 1,5-2 mm in a dry form.
In the case of powdered milk for consumption preparing lactic sugar syrups, intended for the production of toffee, sweets and dairy fillings housings, milk powder is kneaded with water of such a calculation that the mixture contained 60% moisture.
Water for dissolving powdered milk obtained on a spray dryer should have a temperature of 25 — 35 °, and for dissolving powdered milk їin the form of a film (drum-dried) 80 — 85 °. Water is poured gradually with thorough mixing.
When using a milk powder obtained in the spray dryer, it first is kneaded with a small amount of water and then diluted with the remaining part. The resulting mixture to separate lumps and random foreign admixture ^ - this is passed through wiping the machine with a hole diameter 1,0-1,5 mm. Pureed mass used to prepare milk-sugar syrups.
If milk is intended for the preparation of cookies, it may be used in the form of an emulsion having a moisture content 25-30%.
The emulsions are prepared in any kneader small dimensions with a large number of revolutions (at least 100 per minute). Finished emulsion is rubbed through a sieve having a mesh size of not more 2 mm.
In the production of the dough in a continuous manner and the emulsion preparation of raw materials in special apparatuses, emulsatorah milk powder, previously sifted through a sieve with a mesh size 1,5-2,0 mm for 30 minutes before use is stirred with water in a ratio 1: 2 and a resultant mixture is fed into the emulsator.
Eggs and egg products
Before starting production in each batch of eggs tested for goodness and freshness using candling.
Egg, suitable for production, subjected to the following sanitary treatment: carefully cleaned of adhering straw and shavings and placed in a perforated sieve for cleaning.
In the first bath eggs are washed in warm water; when the shell is very dirty wash hair brush.
In the second bath, washed eggs kept 20 minutes ammargene (ammonia solution of silver nitrate in cultivation 1: 20000) is based on the solution sm2 3 1 liters of water.
Instead ammargena as a disinfectant solution can be used 0,2% solution of bleach solution. The third bath eggs rinsed with pure water (shower) for 5 minutes.
The egg is broken down on special metal tables or tables made of marble slabs with the help of special metal knives, mounted on the stands with a point upwards. The knife should be easily removed so that it can be disinfected after use. The contents of the eggs are poured into special cups of aluminum or stainless steel with a capacity of 5 eggs, determine the suitability of the egg mass in the cup, by smell, be convinced of the absence of the shell and only after that the egg mass from the cup is drained through a tinned sieve with a cell diameter of not more than 3 Mm in a dish of greater capacity - clean metal tanks of duralumin or stainless steel or in tinned cans.
The separated (if necessary) from each other whites and yolks should be carefully monitored and protsezheny Tin-plated through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 3 mm. Egg whites after straining slightly knocked by hand to break up dense plexus Ovomucin threads.
Eggs duck and goose, because of the possibility of contamination of microbes that cause food poisoning, it can only be used for the production of small sized dough products (biscuits), which in the production process are subjected to high heat treatment. For each type of goods, in which add the duck and goose eggs, must be authorized by sanitary surveillance.
Breaking duck and goose eggs should be done on a separate table. For storage, and egg masses are separate utensils, readily undergoes washing should be allocated.
Eggshell after breaking duck and goose eggs is removed from the plant and burned, emptied tank or box out from under it undergoes disinfection 1% solution of chlorinated lime.
The resulting egg mass from duck or goose eggs should be introduced in the dough right after it was made.
After working with the duck and goose eggs dishes, tables and a large equipment must be disinfected 1% ethyl clarified bleach solution followed by rinsing with water at a temperature of not less than 80 °, and small equipment boiled for 15-20 minutes.
Employees who carry out work on the preparation of the egg mass from duck or goose eggs should wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water and disinfect them with a solution of bleach (0,2% of active chlorine).
Egg melange, ice cream and frozen yolk protein on admission to the workshop before use should be unfrozen.
Defrosting performed as follows: Banks with melange, protein or egg yolk thoroughly wash brushes in a bath of warm water and immersed for 15-20 minutes to thaw to another bath with water temperature 40-45 °.
Banks put on a special baking and canning reveal clean stainless steel knife, precluding the possibility of getting into a metal can.
Egg products, or egg yolk protein from open jars filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 3 mm or wiped with a cleaning machine on the same cell size and poured into tinned cans or tanks.
Thawed and filtered immediately blends used in the production.
Defrost melange and break the eggs in the same room, to use the same equipment is prohibited.
Dried egg powder, intended for the test, and was mixed with water, an emulsion 25-30% humidity. The water temperature should not exceed 50 ° in order to avoid coagulation of proteins.
Emulsions prepared in a kneader V- small dimensions greater speed (not less than 100 / min.). The finished emulsion is filtered through a sieve with a mesh diameter of not more than 2 mm.
Dried egg white before starting to manufacture dissolved in water at a temperature 30-35 °, so as to correspond to the obtained solution humidity fresh protein humidity. The resulting protein is recovered through a filter with a mesh diameter of not more than 0,5 mm or through cheesecloth.
Solid edible fats
When unpacking the solid fats - butter, margarine, hydrofat, kompaundzhira, coconut oil, etc.-make sure there are no foreign objects.
If there is mold on the surface of fat or dirt them thoroughly cleaned, removing the damaged layer or area.
Fats infected outside mold after stripping can only be used for products which are subjected to heating at a temperature not lower 70 °.
The cleaning of fats from mold and contaminants must be carried out on special tables of duralumin, stainless steel, as well as on marble, magnetite or wooden tables made of hardwood.
Boards wooden tables should be tightly knit and fit together without gaps and should have a smooth surface.
Wooden tables are covered with a white sheet. It is not recommended to upholster them with linoleum or oilcloth, as the latter at constant washing wear out quickly and the pieces of linoleum or oilcloth can get into the product.
Before use, the solid fats are cut into pieces to carefully look.
On completion of processing of fats tables washed with hot water and hot water wash the blades, heated and dried.
Solid fats if they are on the process conditions applied in the molten state must be protsezheny through a sieve with mesh diameter of not more than 1,5 mm.
Fat incoming refrigerated, pre-incubated in the shop storeroom and warmed to acquisition of normal consistency.
Coconut oil is not necessary to use in the molten state, since due to its low melting point (27-28 °) it can be used in a softened state.
Reheating and tempering fat produced in the thermal machines, open digesters or special tanks with heating steam at a pressure of heating steam 0,5-1 atm. Butter intended for cutting pastry for pies and cakes, pre-churning shake up in the car, up to 50 3 kg of oil-5 kg of flour; the resulting mixture is cooled in a refrigerating chamber having a temperature plus 5-8 °.