Confectionery Industry Technology

Preparation of yeast dough and products from it

Classification test

There are four types of yeast-free dough:

A) uncovered (dough for pancakes);

B) cooked with chemical disintegrants (dough for pies, some types of cookies, etc.);

C) cooked using a mechanical baking powder (biscuit dough);

D) prepared with use as a disintegrant oil (sand and puff pastry).

In the manufacture of the dough, two methods of loosening are often used simultaneously, for example, in the manufacture of shortbread cookies with ammonium carbonate.

By the method of preparation, the yeast dough can be brewed or not cooked. The custard is called a dough, in the manufacture of which all the flour (dough for cake Eclair) or a part of it (gingerbread cakes) is brewed with hot water, syrup, etc.

 Products from dough for pancakes

The dough for pancakes is the simplest. Prepare it with a lot of liquid, so it quickly and fully swell the proteins. Flour with liquid must be stirred quickly, otherwise the dough will get non-uniform and the quality of the products will worsen.

Some loosening of the dough is due to the expansion of the air bubbles, which got into the batter during whipping, and the water vapors formed during baking. This is enough to slightly loosen a small layer of dough, and therefore pancakes bake very thin, otherwise they turn out dense and tasteless.

The composition of the test products include the following ratio (in%): flour 26, milk 64, eggs 7, sugar 2,4, salt 0,6,

 400 flour, 30 sugar, 20 butter, 100 eggs, 1000 milk, 5 salt. Weight of dough 1550

In the bowl of the whipping machine, put sugar, salt, eggs and turn on the machine for high speed. After stirring the products for 1-2 min. Add milk, 50% flour from the whole amount laid down in the norm, and switch the machine to a slow speed so that the contents do not splatter. When the mass acquires a uniform consistency, the machine is again turned on for high speed and gradually the rest of the flour is added. After that, whisk again for 1-2 min.

Dough for pancakes can be kneaded in a cauldron using a confectionery whisk. When making a dough, you need to stir it all the time, otherwise it can form lumps that are difficult to stir. Sometimes this dough has to be filtered through a sieve.


Dough for pancakes 1550, grease for lubricating frying pans 20. Weight of baked pancakes 1000

Bake pancakes simultaneously on three or four frying pans in 22 cm and more; It is advisable to use frying pans with handles. Frying pans grease, heat well, pour the dough with a spoon, level it, shake the frying pan in different directions, making sure that the thickness of all the pancakes was the same, and bake on the plate until the underside of the pancake is blanched, after which The pan from the plate is removed and tipped onto a board or table. The thickness of the pancake, should be no more than 1,5-2 mm. Empty the pancake pan again, until it has cooled down, grease, pour the dough and bake it, as described above.

It must be remembered that when baking the dough on very hot frying pans, but unpretentious, the pancakes are well baked and have beautiful colors; When the frying pan is not heated enough, the pancakes are dried up, with a pale surface; On overheated frying pans, large bubbles form on the pancakes, the products are burned and poorly removed from the pan when it is tipped over.

Cooled pancakes are stacked and used for preparing second and desserts, sandwiching a pie filling, cake Kórnik and pancakes.

Frying pans should be cleaned or heated before use, before use, greased with a thin layer of vegetable oil and heated until the smoke disappears. As a result, a thin, smooth film forms on the frying pans, preventing the dough from sticking to a hot frying pan.

 Below are the shortcomings that can arise in the manufacture of pancakes, and the reasons for their occurrence.




The dough is slowly and badly mixed

The dough is unevenly filled.

Uneven thickness

The frying pan does not stand horizontally on the stove

Greater thickness, nepropek

The dough is thick or a lot of dough is poured into the pan

Excessive dryness and brittleness

Low baking temperature, long baking

Unpleasant after-taste

Inadequate raw materials, pancakes are baked, burned, salted, sour, etc.

Quality requirements: pancakes should be round, of equal size, well baked, without cracks and bubbles. Color yellow or light brown; Consistency is soft, elastic.

cake pancake

Baked pancakes 1000, minced meat with onion and egg 2000, egg 1 pcs, white breadcrumbs 50; Oil for lubricating the tray 100

The pan is smeared with butter melted down to the density of sour cream, and sprinkled with breadcrumbs (ground breadcrumbs, grated

Preparation of pancake pie.jpg

Fig. 22. Preparation of a pancake pie

White bread). The bottom and edges of the baking tray are lined with pancakes, and they lay a layer of minced meat on an even layer of 1 / 4 and cover with a layer of pancakes, then again put a layer of minced meat and so act until all the minced meat and pancakes have been laid down (Figure 22). From above, pancakes are smeared with a stirred egg and sprinkled with white breading (grated white bread). Bake the cake for 20-25 min. At 200-220 °. The baked pie is cut into portions, oiled and served hot.

Quality requirements: the pie is sandwiched with pancakes and stuffing; Its surface is brushed; Consistency slightly gummy.

Waffle dough products

Waffle dough differs from the dough for pancakes in that it is prepared with baking powder (baking soda) and, in addition, whisked well. This gives the products porosity. That the air bubbles do not burst, the dough is prepared shortly before baking and stored in a chilled room.

Flour with an average gluten content (25-30%) in the preparation of a dough for wafers is usually administered in two steps. Stepwise kneading of the dough, as well as kneading in small portions, prevents the formation of bound gluten in the test.

The dough after the kneading should be a homogeneous mass, a consistency resembling liquid sour cream. Humidity of the test 64-65%; At a lower humidity, a dough may be obtained, causing the wafers to be poorly baked; With excessive humidity, "swelling" increases and the baking time is longer. The test temperature should be 15-20 °; At a higher temperature, the dough becomes very viscous.

Bake wafers in an electric wafer with two electric heaters (upper and lower) connected by a hinge. Pour the dough onto the surface of the bottom heater and close with an upper heater. The dough warms up from two sides. To speed up the baking and give the products a beautiful appearance, the surface of the heaters is provided with a relief pattern.

When. Baking air bubbles expand, there is rapid evaporation of moisture from the dough, as well as decomposition of soda with the release of carbon dioxide; All this contributes to a good loosening of the dough.

The products are included in the test in the following ratio (in%): flour 39, water 55, egg yolks 4, salt 1, soda 1.

Dough sheet wafers

Flour 1258, eggs (yolks) 126, salt 6, soda 6, water 1800. Exit 1000

In the bowl of a whipping machine, pour water, put salt, soda, egg yolks and flour (50% normal), then quickly Whisk the dough. After 10-12 minutes Add the remaining flour and whisk the dough for another 6-8 min. Before baking, the dough is periodically whipped with a broom so that no precipitate forms.

Dough sheet sugar wafers

Flour 774, powdered sugar 293, vanilla powder 8, water 650, egg (yolks) 69, soda 1,7, butter 86. Exit 1000

In the bowl of the whipping machine, put sugar, egg yolks, soda, pour in water (50% according to the norm) and pour in flour (50% according to the norm). All this is whipped 10-12 min., Then the rest water and flour are added, as well as vanilla powder and butter, heated to 35-37 °, and the oil is poured in a thin stream so that it is distributed throughout the dough surface. Then the dough is whipped for an additional 8-10 min.

Waffle sheets (semi-finished products)

To bake waffle plates, the waffle irons are heated to 150-170 °, then on the bottom plate at its corners and in the middle pour the dough with a spoon and cover with the top plate. When the plates are compressed, the dough spreads over the entire surface:

Bake waffle sheets at a temperature of 150-170 ° for 1-3 min. Before opening the waffle iron, the edges are cleaned with a knife from the "edema" of the dough and only after that they open the waffle iron, remove the wafer sheet and dry it for 6-12 hour. At a temperature of 40-50 °. The "swellings" of the dough are cleaned of burnt and soiled places, soaked and re-used when kneading the dough.

Removal of moisture from the wafer dough during baking because of its small thickness occurs quickly. The starch of flour, which is gelatinized during the manufacture of the dough, gradually dries up and acquires a yellowish shade due to the dextrinization of the starch. From the dough prepared with sugar, wafers turn out light brown due to caramelization of sugars. Egg yolk gives the waists elasticity and connectivity, which allows them to be easily removed from the mold after baking.

Waffle sheets are used to decorate cakes, cakes and prepare sweet dishes.

When making piece products from wafer sheets prepared without sugar, they are glued together for several pieces, sandwiching praline, fruit and berry, fondant and other fillings.

You can use several types of fillings at the same time. After sandwiching the filling, the wafer sheets are put under a press for 2-6 an hour, after which they cut into pieces.

 Sometimes the wafer layer is glazed with chocolate before cutting or after cutting into products.

The baked sheets, prepared from dough with sugar, can be rolled in a hot kind into tubes with the help of a stick (at temperature 35-75 ° the wafer sheets are plastic). Fill the tubes with cream (recipes 25, 26, 27).

Quality requirements: wafer sheets should be of the same size, without cracks; Bubbles and stains; Color yellowish for waffle sheets without sugar and light brown for wafer sheets with sugar; The consistency is fragile; Humidity 3%.

Cake Surprise

For the test: flour 226, yolks 22,5, salt 1,1, soda 1,1, water 324; For the filling: confectionery fat 327, powdered sugar 490, vanilla powder 4, cocoa powder 32. Exit 1000

The dough is prepared and baked, as described in recipes 51, 52; 5-6 wafer sheets (290-230 mm) are sandwiched with a special filling. The top and sides of the product are covered with the same filling, the pattern is pasted with a confectionery scallop and is finished with a wafer crumb. Sometimes on the cake with a stencil make a drawing.

To make the filling, half the prescribed confectionery fat is put into the whipping machine and whipped until the lumps disappear, mix with a part of the powdered sugar, and gradually, while stirring, add cocoa powder, the remaining melted confectionery fat, sugar powder, vanilla powder; Is mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained.

The crumb for sprinkling is prepared as follows: Cut the cake chop on a grinding machine or pass through a meat grinder, add wafer flour (half as small as crumbs) and cocoa powder (on 100 g crumbs 10 g cocoa). To obtain a uniform consistency, the crumb is wiped through a sieve.

Quality requirements: Wafer sheets are evenly interlaid with a chocolate color filling. The cake is made with the same stuffing and crumbs.

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