Confectionery Industry Technology

Products made of unleavened dough biscuit. Products from the air test.

Sweet fresh dough differs from sandy in that it contains less oil (13%) and sugar (2%), but the recipe provides for liquid - water, milk, sour cream, kefir, etc. Liquid contributes to the formation of gluten, which gives the dough viscosity. Flour is taken with an average amount of gluten (28 — 36%).

Loosen dough chemical disintegrants (sodium carbonate, ammonium carbonate). If the dough is kneaded in cream or yogurt, then being in their lactic acid is reacted with soda and immediately begins the evolution of gas, which increases when heated. If a part of the test does not include milk products, then add food acids,

Formation of carbon dioxide in the dough prepared with soda goes two ways: by interaction with acids and soda during its expansion during baking (p 33.). Knead unleavened dough should be quickly and do not leave it in a warm room, because it may lose the ability to climb.

Ammonium carbonate is used to prepare a dough that does not contain acids (for products of Shaker-Lukum). Its loosening effect only affects baking (page 33).

Sometimes unleavened dough is prepared without baking powder, but only for baking in the form of thin sheets (for almond tubes).

Unleavened dough Butter

name of raw materials Sweet dough savory pastry
Wheat flour 1000 1000 1000 1000
Sugar or powdered sugar 250 200 70 30
Butter or margarine 250 100 250 100
Or eggs egg 75 50 75 50
Water or cream 150 300 150 300
Soda drinking:. . . . 1 2 1 2
Citric or tartaric acid ] 2 1 2

For cheesecakes and sweet cakes they prepare sweet rich pastry dough, and for cheesecakes, pies - savory.

Butter or margarine is cut into small pieces, put in a kneading or whipping machine and stirred 5 — 8 min., I.e., until the fat becomes plastic. If a liquid is released from the oil during mixing, it is mixed with a small amount of flour.

Acid, sugar are dissolved in water, eggs are added and everything is mixed, and then filtered through a sieve with cells with a diameter of 1 — 2 mm. This mixture is combined in small portions with butter, the last to add flour, pre-mixed with soda. The dough should be kneaded very quickly - 20 — 30 seconds, since soda, in contact with acid, forms carbon dioxide, which disappears with prolonged stirring, and the volume of products does not increase during baking. If instead of water, the dough is kneaded on sour cream, yogurt or kefir, then you can not add the acid.

The dough can be kneaded by hand - with a hand or a bowl in a saucepan (small portions) or on the table (large portions of dough). They sift flour mixed with soda on the table, make a funnel in it, pour in the filtered liquid and crumpled oil, and quickly combine everything,

3400 flour, 200 filing flour, 400 table margarine, 500 melange, 100 sugar, 40 salt, 30 soda, 30 citric acid, 1300 water; 5800 test output; minced meat (recipe 1 —10) 2500, melange for lubricating 150 patties, vegetable oil for lubricating 25 sheet. Output 100 pcs. 75

The dough, prepared as described above, is rolled in a layer thickness 4 mm and cut it in half. One layer is smeared with eggs, and round dredging is intended for lozenges on which the filling is put. The filling is covered with an ungreased dough layer, and a blunt, small groove is pressed against the dough around the filling to the lower layer. Then, round the smooth or corrugated notch cut out the patties, grease them with eggs, put on a sheet moistened with water, and bake, as indicated above.

Requirements for quality: the patties are tied in the middle in the form of a “string”, evenly greased, without. burnt places and unbaked dough around the filling.


Fig. 34. Cooking cheesecakes from sweet dough

Flour 3600, - margarine creamy 400, eggs or egg products 660, sugar 300, soda 30, citric acid 20, salt 40, water 1300, minced (11 recipe) 2000, vegetable oil for lubrication sheets 25, yatstsa lubrication cheesecakes 200. Output 100 pcs. 70

The dough is rolled into a layer with a thickness of up to 5 mm and cut out of it with a circular notch with a diameter of 8 — 10 cm cakes, the edges of which are bent upwards and then pinned (fig. 34). Cheesecakes are placed on a greased sheet, their edges are smeared with an egg, and then they are minced (from cottage cheese, jam or jam) using a pastry bag in the middle of the cake. Bake products with 230 — 240 °.

Quality requirements: round-shaped products are not deformed, evenly greased with egg and well cooked; color is gray-yellow. The dough is thick, breaks easily.

Products from the air test.

Air dough is a fluffy mass of mechanically whipped proteins with sugar. This is the only dough that is prepared without flour.

When whipping proteins, their volume increases 5 — 8 times. The strength of protein foam depends on many factors, and above all on the degree of its overrun. The more whipped proteins, the smaller the air bubbles in them become, and the walls of the bubbles become thin. In very thin films, changes in proteins occur on the surface of the bubbles (denaturation) and they lose their elasticity, the foam becomes stiff. When baking bubbles of such a foam will burst from the expansion of air in them and the product will settle. Therefore, "interrupt" proteins can not be. A sign of excessive beating is the looseness of the foam.

If whipping proteins is not enough, then the shell bubbles are also fragile, the foam falls off easily and the products are vague. A sign that squirrels are whipped well is that the foam retains its shape and keeps on the whisk without slipping. The presence of yolks and fat makes it difficult to crush. Therefore, whites should be carefully separated from the yolks and whipped in a clean dish.

Adding a small amount of acid increases the strength of the protein foam, so before the end of the beating, you can pour a few drops of 10% citric acid solution into it. Sugar delays the denaturation of proteins and the destruction of foam bubbles.

During baking, the air bubbles expand greatly and the products increase in volume 2 — 3 times. It is necessary that during baking the moisture is completely evaporated, otherwise the products will be dense and viscous. To do this, extend the baking time, and so that the surface is not tinted, the temperature in the cabinet is kept low (150 °).

For finishing the pastry from the pastry, butter cream or whipped cream is used.

Products in the dough are as follows: egg proteins 27%, sugar 73% '.

dough air

Sugar 1032, vanilla powder 75, eggs (proteins) 387. The output of 1000

Test Preparation. In order to make the dough out very lush (air), it is necessary to cool before whisking equipment and raw materials, which is part of the test. Whisk must be clean and free of grease.

Proteins are poured into the beater (when beaters are loaded with proteins, it is necessary to take into account that they greatly increase in volume), turn on the machine for a slow speed and beat up the mass 3 min., Then switch the machine to high speed and continue beating another 5 — 10 min. As soon as there are signs of "curd" of proteins, i.e., the liquid begins to "cut off" from proteins, you need to gradually add sugar or powdered sugar (including vanilla powder) in small portions, otherwise the "curd" of proteins will increase, their structure weak, and the volume is small.

Fig. 35. "Jigging" airy cakes

The duration of the whisking of 15 proteins — 18 min., During this time 10 — 25% sugar is added to them (as normal). Before the end of the beating, the machine is switched to a slow speed, the granulated sugar is poured over and the mass is stirred 1 - 2 min., I.e. until it is homogeneous.

Dough can be cooked otherwise. In the cauldron (preferably with a spherical bottom) whites whip whites with a broom; otherwise, the method of preparation of the dough does not differ from that described above.

Molding and baking semi-finished products. The finished dough is placed in a pastry bag with a smooth tube (hole diameter 15 mm). Round or oval flat cakes for cakes, hats and legs for decorative mushrooms, round cakes 1 cm thick for cakes, etc. (fig. 35) are “deposited” on a baking sheet greased with flour and covered with wrapping paper.

During baking, the products greatly increase in volume, as the air bubbles in the dough expand. To preserve their volume after baking, they must be baked for 20 — 30 min. at low temperature (110 — 120 °) in an oven without humidification. Baked products are removed from the baking sheet or paper using a knife with a flexible blade.

Before baking you can sprinkle with powdered sugar products, from this they get a nice shiny surface.

Below are the drawbacks of the test and their causes.

Disadvantages Causes
Jigging mass spreads

Products outside are dark in color.

Products after baking sit down

Proteins are badly whipped or poorly separated from the yolks, the inventory is warm or fat, a lot of sugar is put in the dough

High temperature furnace

Furnace heat, products early removed from the oven

Quality requirements: fragile products, crumbly, moisture 3,5%.

Cake with cream air (double)

For the dough: sugar 3670, eggs (whites) 1376 ,. Vanilla powder 20; cream (29 recipe): 1181 sugar, butter 1181, 709 eggs, vanilla powder 19, 6 cognac. Exit 100 pieces. by 55 g; humidity 12 ± 3%.

The cooled cakes are glued together in pairs with butter cream so that the lighter and even cakes are at the top. Before gluing, the bottom cake is cut a little, in which case it will not spin while filling it with cream from the pastry bag. Ready-made cakes are put in paper crinkled capsules.

Air cakes can be prepared with whipped cream. To the cream is better to keep on the cakes, it is necessary immediately after baking to do on the underside of the groove.

Quality requirements: white round or oval cakes glued with cream; taste and smell - whipped proteins with sugar, with the smell of vanillin; consistency - crumbly fragile mass, the cream retains its shape well; humidity 10%.

Chopped almonds are added to this dough, which give it a specific taste. A large number of nuts, egg whites and sugar helps to ensure that when baking, they spread out and a shiny crust covered with small cracks forms on the surface. Evaporating moisture and expanding air bubbles slightly increase the volume of products.

Products included in the dough in the following ratio (in%): Nuts 24 ,. sugar 48, 20 protein flour 8.

almond dough

Almonds 1000, 2000 sugar, egg whites 800, 270 flour.

Almonds are sieved at a rumble to remove impurities, and then the shell remains are sifted and carefully removed.

Depending on the method of preparation almonds, grinding and order food compound are several methods of making this test.

The first method. Almonds, half of sugar and a third of egg proteins (according to the recipe) are mixed and passed through rolling. The gap between the rollers should be about 3 — 4 mm; with a narrower gap almonds badly crushed. Then the rollers are placed at a distance of 0,5 — 1 mm from one another and again pass the mass through the rolling. After that, it is mixed with the rest of the proteins and sugar and whipped in a beater with an 2 hook — 3 min. or manually fun 5 — 6 min. The whipped mass is mixed with sifted flour.

second method. Almonds are mixed with sugar (half the norm) and egg white (1 / 3 part of the recipe), 2 — 3 times are passed through a meat grinder with a frequent grill, then the rest of the proteins and sugar are added, the mass is heated to 35 - 40 ° so that the sugar is dissolved. , and again cooled to 20 °, and then mixed with flour. When kneading flour with a warm mass, the dough is tightened and the products are difficult to form.

The third way. The almonds are ground in small grains on the 722-12 grinding machine, while ensuring that the grains are not oiled, causing gloss on the products to disappear. Krupki mixed with powdered sugar, egg whites and whipped 3 — 5 min., And then mixed with flour. If the dough is prepared with sugar, then the mass is heated, as described in the second method, and do not beat.

Disadvantages Causes
Products without lifting, gloss dough
and cracks little sugar
lot of flour
Flat products (settled) the dough liquid
many Sahara
Products are removed from the oven sooner
Products have voids the dough liquid
Low baking temperature

almond cake

Flour 516, 3875 sugar, almonds 1935, eggs (whites) 1550. Exit 100 pieces. by 65 was

Almond dough is put into a pastry bag with a smooth tube (hole diameter 15 mm). On a baking sheet, oiled and floured or covered with wrapping paper, “round out” cakes weighing 77 g are “deposited” so that

Fig. 36. "Jigging" almond cakes

the distance between them was not less than 90 — 100 mm (Fig. 36), since the products blurred during baking. Bake cake for 20 — 30 min. with 160 — 180 °. In a hot air dry oven, a dense, shiny crust forms on the surface of the cakes, which, as the volume of the product increases, breaks, forming large cracks. In cold furnaces with moist air, the products are matte, without shine, with very small cracks or without them. The finished cake springs with pressure with a finger, and a dimple remains on the damp ones.

Baked cakes are removed from the baking sheets with a flexible knife blade. If the products were baked on a baking sheet covered with paper, they are turned over, the paper is moistened with water, and after 5 — 7 min. it is easily removed.

Quality requirements: round, wide (9 — 10 cm) brown cakes, the surface is glossy with small cracks; humidity 8%.

Ideal cake

For the dough: flour 227, roasted almonds 1514, sugar 1514; 151 butter, eggs (proteins) 2271; for cream (recipe 31): sugar 1367, butter 1565, eggs 243, milk 912, vanilla powder 69, cognac 6, cocoa powder 54, praline (recipe 46) 237, cocoa butter 5. Output 100 pcs. 75

Almonds are fried, ground into small grains and mixed with granulated sugar (3Ch at the norm), melted butter and flour. Egg whites are well whipped and at the end of whipping gradually add the remaining sugar, and then mix this mass with almonds. The dough is put into a pastry bag with a smooth tube (diameter of the hole is 1,5 cm) and is “deposited” on a baking sheet of a round or oval flat cake, greased and baked with flour. Bake cakes for 5 — 6 min. with 150 — 160 °.

Baked tortillas are carefully removed with a knife from a baking sheet, dried for 8 — 10 an hour. at a temperature of 35 — 40 ° and level edges. After that, they are glued together in pairs with creamy chocolate cream; the surface is decorated with the same cream, and the edges are sprinkled with crumbs from scraps of Ideal cake.

Quality requirements: round or oval-shaped cake; the surface is covered with cream, the sides are sprinkled with crumb Brown colour; porous dough, dry, crumbly; the cream keeps its shape well; humidity xnumx% '.

almond Cookies

Flour 66, 658 sugar, almonds 263, eggs (whites) 263. Yield 1000 g (220 pcs.).

The dough is prepared as for an almond cake, and put it in a pastry bag with a smooth tube (hole diameter 8 — 10 mm). On a baking sheet greased and floured or covered with paper, pellets weighing 5 are “seated”. In order to “jigrate” the pellets easily detach from the pastry bag, they will sweep away the extra flour with a soft brush. Cookies are baked at 180 — 190 ° for 10 — 15 minutes. Peel it off the baking sheet or paper just like an almond cake.

Cookies can be glued together in pairs with jam; You can glue two products in the form of a fungus and at the same time “leg” to glaze with chocolate or lipstick, or cover with a fruit filling, praline, and then glaze with chocolate or lipstick.

Quality requirements, see “Almond cake”; humidity xnumx% '.

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