In the production of cookies (with its specific problems of unstable quality of flour) performance and monitoring processes should be regularly reviewed.
The basic principles of quality control and management
In the chapter 3, the necessity of implementing a quality management system was substantiated and its general characteristic was given as affecting all aspects of the production tracking structure. For convenience of consideration, this system can be divided into parts. Product quality management using the HACCP system has already been described above, and therefore we will consider separately control procedures aimed at raw materials or products before and after production (which we will call quality control), and procedures performed during production, that is, functions related to With the dynamics of the technological process (which we will call the control of technological processes). This division is associated with the very nature of the control and measurement procedures and consequently with the people who are responsible for their implementation. Inspections and quality control checks can generally be carried out at a convenient time and should be carried out by dedicated personnel. The control of technological processes should be carried out at regular intervals without stopping production, and if the attendants have appropriate training and tools, it can be carried out by the manufacturers themselves.
the quality control operations and control processes include quality control at the stage of pre-production, including verification of the supplied raw materials and packaging materials, checking and monitoring of materials in the warehouse, as well as control of the sanitary and hygienic condition of the enterprise. Conterole of manufacturing processes includes operations for preparation of raw materials, dosing, mixing, aging (binning) and test transport, molding dough, baking cookies cooling and transport, secondary finishing operations and packaging. A further quality control includes testing of the packaged product, as well as monitoring the quality of products at the warehouse and freight forwarding.
In this chapter we will look at typical quality control procedures and so-called "right production methods" (PPMs), which relate to the production as a whole and the people and not to produce a particular product. In the production of biscuits, with its specific problems of natural materials characterization and verification processes are much more complicated than, for example, in the chemical industry.
The main quality control guidelines should allow:
- determine the cases in which changes in raw materials and packaging materials will affect the quality of the product or manufacturing operations;
- quantitatively describe these changes and determine the margins (using characteristics, measurable / description);
- agree with the suppliers of the product characteristics and methods of control (monitoring) significant variable characteristics;
- agree with the procedure of the suppliers for timely communication in the event of violations and defects;
- perform the necessary volume of inspections, without spending time and money on testing, which obviously will not allow to develop useful recommendations for the enterprise;
- timely prepare reports on the results of inspections;
- ensure statistical validity of the results of checks and conclusions based on them;
- record all cases the output characteristics of the specified limits for the preparation of the monitoring and delivery of reports.
Good head quality control department can identify problem areas and accordingly distribute the forces and resources. He / she asks the following questions:
What happens if we do not perform certain control procedures?
Can we afford not to perform certain checks?
Is there enough existing reports on inspections to continue our policy of "continuous improvement" and whether they contribute to reducing the number of required inspections?
Its purpose is rather to reduce deviations and prevent problems than to conduct checks and culls. In many cases instrumental measurements are either insufficiently satisfactory or too long, and therefore both instrumentation and organoleptic evaluation methods involving sensory organs of employees (vision, smell and taste) have to be based. This leads to the fact that it is desirable to select employees both for the required level of knowledge, and for the ability to organoleptic analysis to perform the tasks assigned to them. It is reasonable to check whether they are color-blind (do they distinguish color) and other permanent physical defects that impair their ability to organoleptic evaluation. Employees should be constantly reminded of their value and importance to the business as a whole and, by providing relevant information and preparing them, enable them to do their job in the best possible way.
From the enterprise it is required to produce products in accordance with the required characteristics. Employees engaged in quality control will determine these characteristics, as they will know and understand the properties of the materials used and, therefore, the limitations on them. Perhaps the characteristics of products and materials will be periodically reviewed in accordance with the desire for continuous improvement. Since the characteristics of products affect marketing, production and cost, they should not be changed without general agreement. In the aspect in which quality is considered in this book, it can not be "high" or "low". The product, and therefore its quality, is determined by its characteristics, which must have some tolerances. Therefore, quality control implies an 100% compliance of the product with the approved specifications (specifications), and the quality can not be high or low.
quality control tasks when checking the finished product
It should be recognized that it is impossible to fully define and verify all the characteristics of the ICI. Therefore, it is necessary that personnel involved in quality control be attentive to changes that occur or are possible in the production process and perform checks as necessary. Understanding this determines the frequency of sampling and inspection. When implementing a quality management system, manufacturers immediately inform employees engaged in quality control about the occurrence of problems that may affect the quality of products, and the corresponding reaction is developed jointly.
Consider how to control the final product, bearing in mind that all plant control system must be designed to prevent the deviation and contamination. As a result, spot checks can be estimated scale of some of the problems with a view to tightening control closer to the beginning of the process. Such monitoring may include checking:
the mass of packages and weight control records of packages;
the appearance of the packaging, the correct coding and dating;
finished goods warehouse for handling packages, and compliance with the retention period;
Scrap in packages;
organoleptic characteristics of texture and taste of the cookie;
site separation of metallic impurities and expertise "foreign matter";
conditions on the stock of raw materials, such as compliance with the rules of stacking or raw materials inventory turnover;
Transport procedures and handling of damage when forwarding;
storage conditions and inventory turnover materials in intermediate storage.
The most important property affecting quality is the weight of a single product. If the mass is higher or lower than the specified, deviations in color, moisture content, size or consumer properties are possible. If the size of the product deviates from the specified, the packaging may be too heavy or too light, and this affects the characteristics of the packaging process and the economic performance of production. To control the mass of the package, special instruments can be installed, and their records are of great value. These instruments, commonly referred to as control machines (control scales), must be checked and calibrated at regular intervals for proper operation.
and apparatus for removing Metal impurities should be checked regularly. organoleptic analysis methods will be discussed in chapter 6. All the more widespread sale of articles with the exact indication of its nutritional value, and at the same time to confirm the information on the packaging of quality control should include the taking of samples and the corresponding execution of approved methods of analysis.
Analysis of the quality of audit results for a certain period of time may identify deficiencies packaging materials and certain equipment. The responsibilities of the quality control manager is to identify these deficiencies and notification of employees engaged in the control of technological processes, work equipment, developing new products, and so on. D. (To identify possible measures to implement improvements or special investigations).
Detection of products with substandard packaging requires the adoption of appropriate urgent measures. These measures depend on the seriousness of the problem and the position of the sales manager. Sometimes it may be necessary to withdraw products already shipped from the factory and even delivered to stores. It is very important to think over the measures that can be taken in such circumstances. The media have an unpleasant ability to discredit leaders who are not ready for the rare, but the troubles that shape public opinion. More detailed questions of product recall and the actual procedure are discussed in .
Claims consumers may indicate deficiencies in the quality control system. Many firms are placed in the packaging the phone number where consumers can report their problems and concerns. Claims consumer is usually directed to the sales and marketing department, but in their consideration of the important role to play, and quality control services, especially when it comes to the presence in articles of undesirable impurities. Preventing their occurrence using PMP achieved mainly discussed in the section 4.4.
The claims of consumers relate mainly to stale (overdue) products, but the most serious claims are related to the presence of foreign impurities in it. In these cases urgent and responsible actions are needed. If the consumer is sufficiently concerned to make a claim, then if he is not assured that the matter will be properly settled, he will become even more irritated. Discontent can manifest itself in the form of an appeal to the authorities or to the court, which can make the enterprise a bad advertisement and result in significant material damage. Naturally, not all claims of consumers are justified, sometimes scammers are found, the main purpose of which is to receive free goods, but with a good accounting system and much attention to technical issues such scammers can be identified. Nevertheless, any claims should be seriously considered, as they can be evidence of serious production problems.
Quality Control Objectives raw and packing materials
The starting-point of raw materials and quality control are the technical requirements to them and understanding of materials with regard to their use, as well as the supplier's capabilities. This means that staff involved quality control, should maintain good contacts with the purchasing department, technology and staff engaged in the development of new products. About substandard materials found as a result of the quality control of raw materials, it is necessary to report not only to production services, but also to those who are engaged in procurement.
In the second part of the book provides information about the types and functions of most of the materials needed for the production of pre-packaged products, with the main technical characteristics of these materials, but most of the suppliers may obtain a reduction of deviations of some properties of these materials to suit the task at hand. In most cases, you have to rely on the fact that the supplier delivers the materials are consistent with agreed requirements for them.
It is advisable to visit suppliers to thoroughly familiarize themselves with their technological processes and the equipment used. The specifications for raw materials and materials must be agreed by the consumer and the supplier, taking into account the use of the relevant materials and methods of analysis. The quality control service should be able to apply analytical control methods similar to those used in the supplier's laboratory. Before, on the basis of the analysis carried out, to assert that there is a violation, it is necessary to make sure that there are no possible errors of our own laboratory. To ensure consistency between the results of both laboratories, joint analyzes of selected samples should be carried out periodically. If there are no necessary devices in the laboratory of the enterprise, the quality control manager for the analysis should establish links with independent laboratories. The range of tests performed and their frequency are determined on the basis of analysis and assessment of risks associated with the use of a particular material.
Quality control of the raw material begins as it enters. Thus important transport conditions because damage or contamination may still occur in this stage. In the case of bulk delivery of raw materials it is advisable to carry out sensory analysis of the sample before unloading. Since it is highly unlikely that all the necessary tests can be carried out prior to acceptance of the material, it is advisable to carry out an initial assessment of raw materials and unload it in a separate bin. The sample taken from the vehicle, the volume should be more than necessary to carry out all or possible tests, and stored in a clean airtight container. This sample should be labeled and stored in the laboratory at all times during storage of the rest of the games in the store - in the event of unforeseen circumstances, it is the reference when using this batch of raw material.
Serious danger in food production is represented by glass jars and bottles, since their fragments can get into the product, and therefore samples of ingredients should be kept only in tin cans or plastic containers if they need to be removed from the laboratory. Although the warehouse employee is responsible for raw materials and other materials (until they are needed for production), quality control employees should check the storage conditions in the warehouse (temperature, humidity, pest infestation, hygiene conditions). It is also necessary to correctly mark and record stock in the warehouse to ensure proper use and movement. All raw materials and materials after delivery should be checked as soon as possible and as necessary - during storage. To exclude the release of goods from the warehouse to production prior to quality control, it is necessary to install a certain system. In case of doubt in the quality of the material, the responsible for the procurement should be notified immediately. Sometimes, it may be necessary to abandon certain materials or use for production a certain amount of material from old stocks; In any case, before making a decision to accept or refuse a material, it is necessary to critically evaluate the results of the control.
You should always take into account the issue of representativeness of the sample. There are different procedures to obtain "good" sample, but since they are generally quite complex sampling rules to be approached critical only if the results of the first sample taken suspicious or are at the border of acceptable quality.
Acceptance procedures of raw materials from new suppliers
Using one supplier of raw materials to reduce process complexity, but entails a commercial enterprise vulnerability. The competent procurement specialist is never limited to only one source of supply, no matter how good it may be. Therefore, together with experts in quality assurance and technologists engaged in the development of new products, it should plan the use of alternative sources of supply.
Before receiving materials from a new supplier, a number of technical and commercial measures must be taken. The supplier should be offered a supply in accordance with the approved specifications. It is advisable to visit his company and get acquainted with the equipment and quality control procedures. Then you should order the delivery of a representative trial batch of raw materials sufficient for one or more sample baking (batch). Production personnel, assisted by technologists, should use this material instead of the usual raw materials, and the entire process flow should be carefully monitored. Perhaps, with This may require slight changes in installation adjustments that need to be recorded. If the product looks satisfactory, should conduct an organoleptic control, and only then you can take a test batch for longer testing and final approval.
Correct methods of production
The correct methods of production imply compliance with occupational health and food safety, and, naturally, they are closely related to the HACCP system. Labor hygiene, strictly speaking, does not refer to the actual production technology of the MCI, but since it is very important in their manufacture and the technology department needs consultations on this issue, a discussion of the general hygiene principles, practices and practices of occupational hygiene is quite appropriate. Lack of attention to PMP can lead to the ingress of unwanted impurities into the products, and therefore PMPs are directly related to quality control.
Many provisions that should be taken into account do not need special mention, since in the preparation of food products much prompts common sense. The problem is that cleaning the equipment and paying attention to the small things that ensure the receipt of useful and safe products require the implementation of labor-intensive operations that in themselves do not make a profit. Therefore, hygiene is often neglected, and very soon negligence and lack of control become the norm. This can serve as a bad example for new workers and lead to complacency in relation to unhygienic working conditions. The manufacturer of food products has a great moral and legal responsibility for the production of safe and useful products for consumers.
The main factors that pose a threat to health or reducing consumer properties of finished products, include:
spoilage bacteria and molds;
animal contamination (rodents, birds, insects) and the people;
the presence of foreign matter (glass, metal, paper, stone, plastic and fabric);
contamination of chemicals (insecticides, detergents, bleaches, lubricants).
Different countries have laws and regulations on these issues are significantly different, but the rules and regulations are constantly evolving, and all manufacturers must adhere to them as closely as possible. In the following sections we will try to summarize these rules and regulations.
Sources of pollution
Microorganisms of people fall into the product usually with the hands. The product can also get hair, buttons, jewelery, clothes and things out of his pockets. Here, the most important requirement is to comply with the basic rules of personal hygiene by those who come into contact or may come into contact with the food product. Some diseases can spread rapidly when in contact with food staff neglect hand washing after using the toilet. Very unpleasant, if food is contaminated by fat and other dirt with unwashed hands.
All premises where food products are located should be equipped with suitable places for washing hands with constant presence of hot and cold water, soap without flavors and disposable towels. Do not wash with cold water without soap and shared towels. Liquid soap should be in fixed dispensers. Do not use soap in the form of bars that can be stolen, accidentally get into the dough, etc. Do not use the same sinks and detergents for washing your hands or washing equipment. Before starting work with food, all workers should wash their hands and make sure they are clean.
All workers should be provided with clean overalls and hats, which should be used only in food production. It is forbidden to make personal food, beverages, money, pins, jewelry (except for simple wedding rings), watches, radios, books, newspapers and smoking accessories in production zones. The hair should be completely cleaned under the headgear, and remove them in the production areas even for combing should be prohibited. Thus, the probability of contamination by various "foreign bodies" can be significantly reduced.
Smoking accessories should not be brought into the production area even in the pockets of smokers. In industrial zones smoking should be completely banned.
Production staff should be especially careful with cuts, abrasions, or skin diseases (especially on the hands). Bandages must be of good quality and are brightly colored (at least partially), so they can be easily detected at a loss. When working in areas with metal detectors can be useful to put in an additional metal strip bandages to be automatically detected in case of contact with the product.
Workers with gastric diseases should be out of production areas until they are fully recovered. Often operators need to bring some small items with them during operation. Pens, pencils, gauges and various instruments should not be worn in the top pockets, as when tilted they can get into the product or equipment. In this regard, it is recommended to use overalls without upper pockets. If the work requires gloves made of fabric (as when working with chocolate) or waterproof, they require regular washing / washing and drying both inside and outside. Use gloves only one person, and if damaged, they should be replaced immediately.
The probability of contamination is particularly high when opening and emptying bags or boxes. Pieces of rope or paper removed when opened, should be disposed of in the bins and not on the floor. Before tipping the bag, box or other type of container, make sure that they are on the floor or other surface prevent dust, which may get into an undesired place. Disposing of empty containers, you need to minimize the generation of dust and dirt, as well as make sure that it does not present a hazard to other workers.
Small pieces of equipment
In most enterprises, the production of MCI need to use special containers, beakers or trays for transferring and weighing of raw materials or the test that must be made of metal or plastic, as the pieces of glass are very dangerous. The glass containers is prohibited to use in industrial environments!
When the raw material is shipped in a glass container, it should be moved in unbreakable packaging in special rooms outside the production areas. Color coding tare proved to be better than stickers (labels, tags, labels) that can get unstuck. Especial danger is represented by elastic bands, as they are used to "fly away" in the most unexpected directions and get lost. All utensils, empty or full, should be stored on special clean pallets or shelves - not on the floor. Due to this, when they are turned over, dust from the floor does not fall on the product or equipment. After use, all packagings should be washed with hot water (if necessary with detergent) and left in an inverted form for drying.
Cleaning supplies (rags, brushes, mops and squeegees) should be stored and dried after use in special supports, shelves or hooks, not on the floor. Detergents used for cleaning equipment must be approved types; their stocks should be stored separately from raw materials and packaging for the test. Such stationery, as elastic rubber bands, paper clips and especially the buttons used in the production is prohibited.
To test residues and other materials are not solidified, not moldy and did not "bait" for insects, after the release of each batch of all equipment should be washed immediately. Usually wash equipment easier when the dough ingredients and other residues are still fresh.
Some vehicles are particularly difficult to carry out cleaning and cleaning in the grooves, recesses and so. N., Which should be considered when selecting new equipment. As for equipment, suitable from the hygienic point of view, it may be useful work . The main equipment installation principle is to place it on the floor so that the floor can be regularly sweep and wash thoroughly.
The housings of moving parts of the equipment must be undamaged and permanently secured in place. All surfaces should be regularly cleaned and rinsed with warm water and detergent if necessary.
Production conveyors should be checked regularly for obsolete edges and seams. If necessary, clean them with a sharp knife or replace the conveyor. If the equipment is not to be used for some time, it should be covered with dustproof coatings. Liquid collection trays and other containers for the collection of residual raw materials and semi-finished products should be regularly emptied and cleaned (including without fail - after the release of each batch of products). Particular attention should be paid to ensuring that food products are not contaminated with lubricating oils. Leaks in engines, gearboxes or bearings must be reported immediately to the repair service.
Where there is a need for high lifts to the tops of the vehicles or bridges and staircases are required to pass through the installations, special tracks should be provided with appropriate protection to prevent dirt, such as floors, carried on the shoes from getting into the dough, the product or on their surface. To fix wires or other objects in production areas, do not use ropes; Fabric materials or materials with loose insulation must be covered and securely fixed to prevent their destruction. In industrial areas, do not use wood, because it easily breaks and chips (debris) can get into the raw material or dough.
When replacing the equipment it must be completely removed from the production area and stored (preferably in a sufficiently pure form) in a warehouse located outside industrial zones. In many enterprises, the "graveyard vehicles" is a perfect haven for rats, mice and insects. In the industrial zone of similar convenience shelters for pests it should not be.
Buildings and general purpose area
The main source of pollution - insects, animals and birds. The source of potential danger can also be falling from the top dirt and small particles. Avoid the penetration of flying insects and birds can be, using special screens at the ventilation holes and windows. To catch flying flying insects caught on the enterprise, it may be useful to combine grids under high voltage using ultraviolet light to attract insects. Such a system does not provide 100% reliability, and therefore it is better not to allow insects to enter buildings at all. Open inputs must have air curtains (air or plastic strips). The outer doors must be tightly fitted to the floor - so that animals can not enter the room at night or at any other time. Deratization systems should function continuously, and any bait should be placed only in specially designated places, in specially designed containers, which must be clearly marked. Damaged containers with bait should be immediately eliminated.
Channels for cables and other official communications must be sealed to prevent accumulation of dust and subsequent insect infestation. The high eaves and beams, which can be collected dust should be sloped and should be cleaned regularly. In all production areas should be maintained good lighting, and to prevent glass falling in the event of the destruction of bulbs, where possible, should be placed plastic shields.
It is essential that all employees of food industries are aware of these potential dangers of pollution and immediately reported to the management of all cases of inadequate sanitary and hygienic condition of the enterprise.
In many countries, employers are obliged to ensure the safety of equipment, staff and working areas. However, if workers do not report malfunctions of equipment, cleaning and so on shortcomings. E., Inherently safer working conditions can become dangerous.
Dirty floors in contact with moisture or grease become slippery. Their cleaning should be performed as needed.
The moving parts of machinery (especially with rollers or grippers) in order to avoid the possibility of falling into the hands or clothing them must be fenced. It is especially dangerous to run a car, when the fence is shifted or removed. Experience has shown that accidents at work with equipment occur more frequently with the "experienced" operators, which become too confident and trying to solve the problem, working on machines with the guard removed. They run the risk, because before they were able to avoid the danger.
Most of the equipment is electrically driven and controlled with the help of electricity. For security reasons (and other) connections and electronic components are located in cabinets or behind the barrier. Electricity is invisible, so to remove these barriers are very dangerous. A fault in the electrical equipment must immediately inform the management and staff responsible for it.
The stretching of the muscles, which causes back pain, is a very common trauma in the workers of enterprises. This is unpleasant for the injured as well as for the employer (in view of the potential costs of paying the hospital). Stretching of the back muscles is a consequence of physical efforts, applied incorrectly or inadvertently. Employees need to point out the need to approach the movement and lifting of bags, boxes or equipment nodes reasonably. If they are too heavy, you need to ask for help, and if the floor is slippery, extra caution should be exercised. Do not try to raise anything too high without additional help, but do not expect that a colleague will help you if he does not understand what is required of him, or if he is not strong enough.
Dirt - it is something that is in the wrong place \ quickly becomes mud dust. It is unpleasant, it can be dangerous to health and may accumulate and fall into the container with food or raw materials. In the food industry it should be arranged so that the dust was as small as possible, and any dust appeared to be immediately removed.
Engineering works and construction works
Special attention should be paid to the repair and commissioning work performed by non-productive personnel, as builders and installers are not accustomed to the sanitary and hygienic standards observed at food industry enterprises. Locksmiths and repairmen should not stand on surfaces that come into contact with food, and if drilling or cutting is required on site, then to retain metal waste, you need to install magnets. In workshops it is also useful to maintain a high level of production culture (to remind the staff that in this enterprise it is a general requirement). Metal shavings and sawdust can easily enter production areas on the shoe of engineering and technical personnel, and all precautions must be taken to reduce this danger.
To avoid missing or falling into important parts of the mechanisms of nuts, bolts and other small pieces of equipment, they must be collected in containers, and not left on the shelves of machines. If you have to break through walls, floors or ceilings, the whole area should be fenced so that fragments of brick, stone or mortar do not get into the areas of food production, and after such work thorough cleaning is necessary. It is necessary to remove the pieces of the frozen mortar, the broken doors and seal the cracks / cracks without delay, as they can provide shelter to insects and pests.
Housekeeping / cleaning and its control
Even if all the above basic precautions are followed, the company is an important issue of the organization and control of cleaning and maintaining order. This problem should be solved within the framework of quality management systems and HACCP. For hygienic conditions meet all!
For the control and organization of all cleaning operations it is advisable to appoint a permanent employee, but in fact the management of the production department must answer for cleaning. Operators should clean their equipment regularly and after the release of individual batches of products. If necessary, permanent cleaners should be appointed to work with production personnel. Such an organization creates in the production zones an atmosphere of collective responsibility and prevents negligent workers from shifting responsibility to other persons they do not know. An exception is the cleaning of large areas, general cleaning, washing of walls, the upper parts of shops and some floors, which, as experience shows, is better performed by special harvest teams with the appropriate mechanized equipment. Such brigades should also be able to cope with unforeseen situations (significant leaks, clogged drains, etc.).
The person responsible for the sanitary and hygienic condition is responsible for the work of such cleaning teams, and he must ensure the cleaning and maintenance in the appropriate order of non-productive areas - yards, garbage containers and sewage. This person should understand the properties of various detergents and disinfectants and insecticides, be responsible for their availability and safe storage (far from finished products, raw materials and packaging materials). He should draw up a cleaning schedule and agree on cleaning methods with the heads of the shops, ensure the availability of appropriate harvesting equipment and maintain it in working order. It should also organize briefings for all production and maintenance personnel at regular intervals and provide special orientation briefings for new employees before they are allowed to work.
Responsible for the sanitary condition should liaise with specialized companies to combat insects or rodents. It is advisable to conclude with one of these firms contract for deratization.
For the purity of the enterprise and high-quality cleaning of all personnel responsible food production, but is responsible for the sanitary conditions must be sufficiently qualified to know the necessary technical and microbiological methods, and to be a good organizer. It must also maintain close contact with the technological department.
If workers are delivering to the plant raw materials or their vehicles do not comply with hygienic standards, you must immediately submit the claim to the supplier in writing, which should indicate that the next batch will not be accepted unless they are complied with hygiene requirements.
Analysis of sanitary conditions
The HACCP system is based on regular monitoring of sanitary conditions and respect for the company PMP. Analysis in the field of sanitary and hygienic state can be charged with a variety of staff as it facilitates the evaluation of what is already being done in this regard and what else should be done.
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JOWITT, R. (ED.) (1980) Hygienic Design and Operation of Food Plant, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
Food and Drink Manufacture, Good Manufacturing Practice, a guide to its responsible Management, (1998) 4th ed., IFST, London.
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MANLEY, D. J. R. (1986) «Biscuit and Flour Confectionery», in Quality Control in the Food Industry, Vol. 3, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London.