Semi-finished products from fruits and nuts

Natural fruit juices

Ripe, but not overripe fruit, without the slightest signs of spoilage, wash, remove and remove bones, seed nests, peduncles and fruit tree (after pressing the juice from the pulp can be prepared jam or jam). Squeeze the juice on the extractor 724-3, included in the kit of the universal drive; You can use another device.

The juice quickly turns sour, so it must be used immediately. Store the juice at a temperature of 0 to 2 °. Juice can be preserved by adding to 1 kg of juice 2 kg of sugar and warming it at a temperature of 60-70 ° for 30 min.

Fruit 1000, sugar 800-1500

Fruits with soft flesh after washing and bulkheads are wiped on the machine through a sieve with holes of 1-1,5 mm, and fruit with hard flesh is pre-brewed, or baked and also wiped. After that, the mass is boiled without sugar, then add sugar and boil it to 104-106 °.

The finished jam is put in clean scalded and dried barrels with a capacity of no more than 50 l, filling them in two batches. Clog the barrels when the temperature of the jam drops to 50 °. Keep jam in a dry cool room at a temperature not higher than 8-10 °. You can pack jam in wooden boxes, glass or metal jars.


Fruit 1000, sugar 1000-1500 a.

Dense jelly jam is obtained by cooking it from fruit, rich in gelling substances, for example apples, quinces, plums, cherry plums, gooseberries, cranberries, black and red currants. You can make jam from fruits that contain little gelling substances, namely: from raspberries, strawberries, cherries, pears, apricots. However, when cooking them, you need to add fruit juice, rich in gelling substances, or fruit.

The first way. The berries are picked and washed, large fruits are cleaned, inedible parts are removed, then shredded. Cook jam with sugar, stirring, 15-20 min.

The second way. After preparation the most beautiful berries of the same size and maturity are selected, and crushed and deformed berries are ground in puree. To the mashed potatoes add sugar, stirring, bring to a boil and add whole berries or fruit, sliced. Cook jam 15-20 min. Up to 105 ° (page 59). Preserve jam as well as jam,

Fruit jelly for glazing

Fruit puree 1000, sugar 1500 a.

When making puree for marmalade, the fruit is wiped through a wiper with a fine grate or through a sieve more frequent than used in the production of jam; In marmalade, intended for glazing, there should be no noticeable particles of fruit. Only marmalade is made from fruits containing many gelling substances, i.e. apples (best of all Antonov), apricots, plums, currants, gooseberries, etc.,

The prepared puree is boiled with sugar until 107 °, continuously stirring with a wooden spatula, or until the layer of marmalade with a thickness of about 2 mm remains on the elongated spatula. In marmalade you can add food acids, tint it in any color and aromatize.

Glaziruet products with hot marmalade, since at 60-70 ° it freezes. The products are poured with marmalade and ground with a brush or spoon or dipped in marmalade.


Fruit 1000, sugar 1000-1500

Jam is whole berries or fruit, cooked in a thick sugar syrup. To ensure that the fruit in the jam was particularly beautiful, transparent, glassy, ​​nesmorshchivshimisya, resistant to storage, you need as much as possible to saturate them with sugar. Not all fruits absorb sugar in the same way, so they are treated differently before cooking: they puncture with a wooden stick or stainless steel fork or peel, or for a few seconds put in boiling water to peel the crack; Sometimes the fruit is heated for several minutes in hot water (70-90 °) to soften the internal structure of the fruit.

Fruits that do not have a dense shell and absorb sugar easily are poured with a thicker sugar syrup (70-75% concentration) and cook for a short time in 2-3 intake; Between the boil cooks give 2-3 hours to brew. Fruits that absorb sugar poorly are poured with liquid syrup (25-40% concentration) and brewed in 5-6 receptions with an exposure of up to 12-24 an hour. (See Table 7).

Fruits for jam are selected the same size, maturity, color, without flaws, stains or damage.

- Cook jam in wide basins in a large amount of syrup, so that the fruit is free to float and not hem. It is best to make jam in brass or stainless steel basins; you can make jam in brass, well-cleaned basins, but you cannot insist on jam in them.

When making syrup, it is recommended to use water left over after scalding the fruit. To avoid syrup, especially when cooking low-acid fruits, you need to add about 10% molasses or 1% citric acid before the end of cooking. To low-aromatic fruit (pears, apples, gooseberries), vanillin is added to the syrup.

For each type of fruit, it is necessary to prepare a syrup of a certain consistency, since in more liquid: syrups, fruit can burst, and in denser ones, wrinkle.

Recipes and cooking mode jam

Name of fruitPre-treatment of fruit before cooking in syrupConcentration

Syrup at a gulf of fruit in%

Quantity of brewscontinue

Standing between cooking

Consumption of raw materials for 1000.


Waste and losses
Apricots (pitted)Divide in half50-553854268817,5


Stamp, blanch 1-2 min.45-504-84946808,0
the normPeeled, cut in half or four pieces, blanched until softened45-55





alychaBlanchurut 5 min at 80 °, затем накалывают50-60355106888,0


Wash, cook 3-5 min.

And kept in running water 3-5 days



Washing, cleaning from

Cuticles, cut into slices, remove seeds, blanch. 5-10 min At 85-90 °

Cherry (without


Remove the bones55-602584565524,5
Cherry (with braids


Stuff, blanch at 80-90 °25-403571964410,5
pearsPeeled, cut in half or four pieces, blanched until softened45-554885968137,5
MelonWash, peel, cut into slices, remove seeds, blanch 5-10 min. At 85-90 °70-753590973136,5
Strawberries and strawberriesRemove the sepals70-7531271553212,5
gooseberriesRemove stems and fruit blossom, blanch 5 min. At 80 °364551269512,0
Paradise applesRemove sepals, cut the stems shortly, blanch 3-4 min. At 80-90 °, then punctured45-534858966012,5
Plums (with braid points)Blanch 5 min. At 80 °, and then punctured25-504859867010,5
Cherry (with bones)Blanchurut 3-5 min at 80-90 °45-504555156010,5
ApplesPeeled, cut in half or four pieces, blanched until softened45-554872468937,5

G 3 added citric acid.

Add 0,05 g vanillin.

During the infusion, the fruits should be completely immersed in the syrup, otherwise they may form spots. When infused, the sugar penetrates into the fruit and displaces moisture from it, making the syrup liquid. But the density of the syrup should be gradually, before each cooking, increase, adding sugar. It is better to add thick syrup instead of sugar or to drain the syrup from the berries and evaporate the moisture out of it. To cook fruit for a long time together with syrup is not recommended, as they can boil.

In the prepared jam the fruit is vitreous, do not float to the surface, but are evenly distributed over the syrup. A drop of syrup, compressed between the fingers, stretches out into a thin thread; A drop of syrup on the plate should not blur.

Finished cooked fruit is spread with a spoon into sterile glass or ceramic jars and filled with hot syrup. Banks are closed with gauze so that steam can escape. The next day, the banks are tightly sealed (knotted with cellophane, parchment or writing paper).

Requirements for quality: fruits of the same shape are evenly distributed in a transparent sugar syrup. Fruits and berries are soft, but undigested; The syrup is thick.

candied fruit

Candied fruit is called candied fruit. They are widely used for decorating cakes, cakes and for filling cupcakes, women and other products.

Candied fruit is cooked like jam from apricots, quince, pineapple, pear, cherry, cherry, peaches, mountain ash and orange, lemon, watermelon and melon crust, but take it out of syrup.

When cooking fruits without molasses and in non-acid syrup, the fruits extracted from the syrup are placed in a colander to drain excess syrup, and then they are laid out on a grid in a warm dry place for final drying. If the fruit is brewed with molasses or in sour syrup, they are removed from the syrup, washed in warm water, dried and dipped in sugar-based syrup (recipe 18), which quickly dries up and forms a brilliant sugar crust.

Are widely used candied fruits from citrus fruits - oranges, tangerines and lemons. These candied fruits are very well added to the composition of different doughs, and also used to decorate products. Citrus peel is boiled in water, then soaked in a cold room 3-4 days, changing the water. Soaked cakes are poured with syrup and boiled, as described above.

You can prepare candied fruits from watermelon crusts, peeled from the upper hard skin. In this case, they are not soaked, but boiled in water until the ray is easily pierced, then poured with syrup and boiled like jam.

Quality requirements: dry fruits sprinkled with granulated sugar, other requirements for fruit, see "Jam".


Citrus fruits are covered with a thin shell with a pleasant aroma called zedra. Zedra with orange or lemon is removed, using a special device or using a frequent grater, but you can remove it with a knife, without capturing the white bitter crust.

You can rub a clean dry orange with a piece of sawn sugar, then dissolve this sugar in water or keep in tightly closed jars. The zest is also stored in syrup or in a mixture with granulated sugar or powdered sugar: the mixture must have a paste density. When used, it is dissolved in warm water.

To flavor the jelly, creams, syrups for making a soak or lipsticks from the peel squeeze through the cheesecloth juice. Squeezes are used to flavor the dough and fruit fillings.


Almonds - or nuts 500, sugar 600. Exit 1000

Almonds or nuts after cleaning fry at 130-135 ° until golden, pour into the cauldron, add the sugar and, without removing from the fire, stir intensively with a wooden spatula until the sugar dissolves. The mass is poured onto an oiled marble table top or baking tray and, after cooling and solidifying, is crushed in a mortar or machine (melange), and then rubbed on a roll, passed through a meat grinder or ground with another flourter.

Pralines are also prepared from other oil-containing kernels: apricot kernels, peanuts, sunflower seeds, etc.

Quality requirements: a thick fatty mass of dark brown color.

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