Technology and recipes in the confectionery industry

Confectionery industry, like many other industries, has changed considerably in recent years. While the basic recipe has undergone minor changes, significantly changed the production technology (especially with regard to the methods of forming small wares and tiles, as well as their packaging).
At the beginning of this chapter, it seems appropriate to mention only these changes, but more on those later applied to specific recipes.
Different groups of confectionery products require specific molding techniques, so they can be packed wrapping and most appropriate way for sale. Probably the most successful innovation has appeared sweet bar. These bars allow the use of cost-effective methods of production, packaging and point of sale in the calculations.
Simultaneously there were significant improvements in the package - in the materials used, and the methods of encapsulation. Most of the bars to ensure a long shelf life, protection against insect damage and pollution require protective packaging. These factors we consider in the individual chapters.
Production of chocolate we have already seen, so it is clear that the chocolate icing and esters are preferably fat based, moisture content in them is very small (typically less than 1%), and the ingredients are not in an aqueous solution.
In many confectionery processes, the solubility of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account alone or in combination with other sugars - such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are two main groups of sugar confectionery products: a) articles in which the sugars are completely dissolved, and b) articles in which the sugars are partially dissolved and partly present in the form of small solid crystals suspended in solution. These products can be modified with other ingredients (eg milk and fats). The first group includes hard caramel products, hard and soft dairy sweets, iris and most jelly sweets. The second group includes products such as fudge, fudge (cream fudge), marshmallow and nougat with a pronounced fine crystalline structure.
Overview confectionery production technologies
Here we see that all the different textures is obtained from the use of various technological processes and formulations, all of which require special methods of formation of separate products. Here we look at the overall technological issues, and specific types of applications, see. In other sections of this book.
Smearing and cutting
19.1 Fig. 19.1. smearing and cutting system "Sopag" (design constantly modified)
The machine is provided with cooled rollers that allow feeding the product directly from the device, where it is prepared for forming the device wafers. Plate after molding and lamination are fed into the cooling device, and then in the conventional cutting apparatus and spreaders. Then, the product is coated.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the oldest method of producing bars and individual products from plastic products such as fudge, nougat and various pastes. The confectionery product in a suitable plastic state, determined by its moisture content, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to obtain a plate of the desired thickness. This plate is then fed to the cutting devices to produce wide strips, which are then cut into narrow tiles or bars. Currently, the hot product is fed to the cooled rolls, which make it possible to obtain multi-layered plates. Plates are continuously cut into strips that pass through (spreader) "spreader", after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An example of such a process is the "SollichConverter" system (Figure 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is used for the production of candies, fondant and jellies, certain mammary and Fudge candy, marshmallow and other products that can be prepared in liquid form.
Lollipops (caramel)
Some products in liquid form may be molded at a temperature of about 150 ° C in a metal mold whose surface is covered with a "lubricant".
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou
These products are usually cast in a cell formed by starch (see. Below "Lipstick Cover"). More recent developments - an automatic retrieval and fondant otsazhivanie housings and other confectionery products using metal molds (firm Cadbury-Baker Perkins), and otsazhivanie caramel and toffee in silicone molds (manufactured by Baker Perkins). Silicone - a non-sticky material that has unique properties and is resistant to relatively high temperatures for the production of conventional caramel confectionery.
This method is applied almost exclusively to the lollipop and some types of iris. Made usual flavored candy, candy filled and "toffee".
The principle of the manufacture is cooled boiled syrup under controlled conditions to achieve ductile. In this state, the product is converted into a kind of tourniquet is applied to the stamps, which is obtained from it a plait finished products (usually a particular shape or pattern). The resulting product immediately sent to a cooling rack and wrapping machines.
For some kinds of candies and chews used variant of this method, in which the tow is fed into prepared as cutting and wrapping machine, where through high circular knives are cut away small pieces arriving at Wrapping machine.
Extrusion and molding bars
The principle of extrusion, realized in the production of many non-food products, has also been successfully applied in the confectionery industry. The application of this process to the production of various products - from soft materials such as marshmallow and fondant sweets to very plastic nougat and milk chocolates - is described in [2]. In this case, the material to be extruded is fed to the outlet nozzles by means of several rolls or screws. The nozzle orifice profile defines the shape of the final product, and many extruders are equipped with a number of nozzles that create bundles that can be cut into bars or small pieces. In Fig. 19.2 shows different rolls for extruders, and in Fig. 19.3 - cross section of the Wemer-Lehara extruder with a mechanism for cutting small pieces from the filaments. In Fig. 19.4 shows the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing gum and chewing sweets.
19.219.3Fig. 19.3. Werner-Lehara sweets extruder from Werner (Baker-Perkins) (side view), Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA
The design of the NID extruder for bar making (Figure 19.5) is somewhat different. Feeding is carried out by corrugated rollers in the same way as in other extruders, but the moldable material is fed to the second profile roll. The profiled surface of the roll for the easy separation of the material is covered with fluoroplastic and serves to give the bars the necessary shape. The pins help to remove the strands on the conveyor belt.
It is possible to produce multi-layer bars in which two layers are extruded simultaneously, or bars with a casing of another confectionery product. Extrusion is well combined with other continuous methods of manufacturing and glazing.
When extrusion confectionery should observe certain precautions.
Temperature. The temperature of extrusion is fundamentally important, especially in the case of milk candies and nougat, the consistency of which essentially depends on the temperature. Small variations in temperature can lead to significant changes in the extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, the temperature is usually from 35 to 38 ° C, but much depends on the type of product, and the exact temperature
tural conditions must be determined empirically. Low temperatures and high pressures cause the ejection of safety plugs extruders.
Separation of fat. If fat separates during extrusion, this is a sign of poor emulsification. Improvement is achieved by including in the formulation of an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate).
Destruction after extrusion. Some products after extrusion lose their shape, and the strip, almost cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the tape can become noticeably more flat. This is due to several reasons:
  • too high a moisture content;
  • It was not emulsified fat and may be too soft;
  • protein any milk ingredient is not properly dispersed;
  • Fudge or pastes did not form a crystalline structure or it was destroyed by excessive mixing after the formation of crystals. This defect can be very difficult to perceive, and with the continuous production of Fudge, its appearance depends on the moment of addition of the crystallizing lipstick to extrusion. Determine the optimal conditions for a particular equipment can only be experimented. Firms specializing in the production of extrusion equipment have carried out a large amount of research in the field of designing machines for the extrusion of confectionery products of various consistencies. For some products - such as chewing sweets and chewing gum - the roller extruder gives way to a multi-screw (screw) extruder. These technologies are described in other sections of the book.
The principle of coating is already described in the chapter 5. There are two types of knurled sugar - hard and loose. When hard rolling, successive layers of sugar powder and syrup are added to the desired body (for example, nuts) and dried with warm air passing between the layers deposited. Loose knurling is performed in a similar way, but by cold technology. Soft bodies (for example pastes, jellies, soft dairy stuffing) are used, and the coating is made of sugar (or glucose) syrup and powdered sugar. After reaching the desired size and weight of the coating, the candies are partially dried and covered with glaze. This process is fully mechanized, including loading and unloading of tanks, automatic spraying of syrups (or chocolate), and control of air supply for drying or cooling to tanks.
fondant cream
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually denoted in English by the word "creme" (cream), but some traditional products use the option "cream", and in different countries it is called differently.
Lipstick is prepared by dissolving sugar and glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to a solution containing about 88% CB. At ambient temperature, this solution is supersaturated with sugar and unstable, and if it is quickly mixed and cooled, the excess sugar drops out of the solution in the form of small crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a solid phase of sugar crystals suspended in the liquid phase consisting of a saturated solution of "sugars".
large crystals are formed without stirring and cooling. Beating alone gives unsatisfactory results, since a large amount of latent heat of crystallization. If the syrup is whipped leave hot slows crystallization and subsequent slow cooling leads to the formation of large crystals. Fondant of good quality should be soft in consistency.
Initially lipstick prepared using only sugar, which was dissolved in water and concentrated by boiling to about level 88-90% ST. Since the solubility of sugar at normal temperatures only 67%, syrup concentration 90% very unstable and rapid cooling crystallizes, "giving" very large crystals.
To overcome this drawback, an additive was used that caused inverting part of the sugar and increased the total solubility - this allowed the beverage to beat the syrup into the fondant. As such additives, citric or tartaric acids or, more preferably, a tartar (acidic potassium tartrate) are used. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is considered in another chapter, but here we merely note that such additives decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and fructose. Fructose has a much higher solubility (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and its presence with dextrose makes it possible to whisk the concentrated syrup into lipstick.
This method of use of the additive is very unreliable, since the amount of invert sugar generated varies greatly depending on the purity of sugar boiling time and the hardness of the water. The best results are obtained by adding sugar syrup to a certain amount of invert sugar, cooked separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular structure and very sweet taste (in the modern confectionery industry it is rarely used). Glucose (corn) syrup, invert sugar was replaced in the formulations of lipsticks; it is less sweet, and the presence of complex carbohydrates regulates the formation of crystals and gives a more viscous lipstick without having loose (friable) consistency.
fondant production
To ensure the presence of a syrup phase in a lipstick with a content of CB of at least 75% at ambient temperatures, it is necessary to include enough glucose syrup (corn syrup) in the formulation of the fondant mass, otherwise microbiological problems may arise. This is achieved by using the sugar / glucose syrup ratio 80 / 20 and at a moisture content of 12%, the content of the syrup phase in the lipstick is more than 75%.
The increase in glucose content in the formulation gives higher concentrations, but the sugar / glucose syrup ratio rarely increases above 75 / 25, since in this case the whipping crystallization is inhibited and the consistency of the fondant mass deteriorates. Lipsticks with a higher sugar / glucose ratio are released for special purposes - for example, to "crystallize" the fudge. Sometimes the fondant mass is released with a sugar to glucose ratio up to 8: 1. Because of the crystal structure, it has a very loose (loose) consistency, and also a limited shelf life.
Hand fondant manufacture method was to dissolve the sugar and glucose in water to obtain a solution with a concentration 75-78%, eg:
Sugar 3,6 kg
Glucose syrup 1,0 kg
Water 1,27 kg
The boiling point of this mixture is 107-109 ° C. The solution, which should be free from all traces of undissolved sugar, is cooked to a concentration of 88% at a temperature of about 117 ° C. Then this syrup is poured onto a large cold marble slab and quickly turned over many times, while spreading over the stove. Cooling and mixing lead to rapid crystallization, and it is clear that the quality of the fondant depends here on the skills and vigor of the worker.
At present, for the production of fondant, there are two main types of mechanical equipment. The first - a periodic action, consists of a shallow bath with a water-cooled flat base. The bath rotates a cross bar, equipped with blades in the form of a plow, which turns the concentrated syrup on the bottom of the bath while cooling it. This technology creates conditions for rapid crystallization, due to which a homogeneous fondant with fine crystals is formed. This type of equipment is still used by many confectionery companies in the US, where it is called "Ball beater". Although this is, in principle, a batch-type machine, it has the advantage that, after obtaining the fondant, other ingredients can be added to it and mixed in amounts according to the recipe.
The second type is a continuous machine with an output of 453-635 kg / h. In Fig. 19.6 and 19.7 show two separate parts of the process: making a fondant mass and making a cream. In the second case, non-crystallizable syrup, flavors and colorants are introduced.
The syrup is prepared by compounding the above-mentioned. For modern high technology solution of sugar and glucose are usually prepared using an apparatus called a dissolver, wherein the sugar is glucose and storage tanks diluted with water in a proportion corresponding to the recipe, and fed into a tank, which serves for loading the cooker.
Dissolvers of continuous action work on the basis of volumetric or weight dosing. Weighing is considered more reliable, since with volumetric
19.6 Fig. 19.6. Continuous production of pomade cream and cream. Baker Perkins, Peterborough, England
19.7 Fig. 19.7. The principle of continuous production of fondant and cream. The firm Baker Perkins, Peterborough, England
A. Microfilm cooking appliance g. Mixing pipe 1
b. Некристаллизуемый сироп h. Смесительная труба2
C. Cooling drum j. Frappe
D. Store syrup to. Flavor
E. Device for whipping cream i. Exhaust Pump
F. Release of lipstick for re-melting by other methods
Dosing accuracy depends on the density of the sugar and, in particular, on the presence of lumps, although with the supply of bulk sugar the probability of this is small.
The finished syrup is then fed to the fondant plant through a heating apparatus that raises the temperature of the syrup before it is fed into the continuous cooking appliance (flow heater). Such apparatuses are of two types: one has a coil in which a syrup is fed from above, this coil is surrounded by a steam jacket and transfers the heat to the syrup falling, evaporating the water. In the second, the principle of evaporation of a thin film of syrup with the heated inner surface of the cylinder is used. An example of such a design can serve as a microfilm cooking appliance.
The concentration of syrup is determined by the temperature of the syrup emitted from the cooker. In modern installations, automatic regulators are used, in which signals of temperature changes are fed to control the vapor pressure and the speeds of pumps pumping over the syrup. This is the way to achieve results that are much more stable than with manual adjustment based on visual observations of a thermometer placed in the syrup at the outlet of the cooker. The syrup at a temperature of about 117 ° C must be cooled in a continuous mode, and this is achieved by the fact that the syrup drips from the cooker to a large, slowly rotating metal drum cooled from the inside by spraying water. During the turn of the drum by about 270 °, the syrup is cooled from 117 ° C to about 38 ° C and with this scraper knife this supercooled syrup is removed from the drum and fed to the whipping device. On the surface of the drum, crystallization does not occur during cooling, so after the scraper the steam jet is sent from the injectors to the drum surface to prevent crystallization in a very thin residual syrup film before the syrup is returned to the drum from the cooker.
The whipping device consists of a square or cylindrical body length of about 93 cm and a diameter of about 50 cm, equipped with metal pins and a cooling water jacket. The shafts, also provided with pins, rotate inside the casing and provide the whipping action of the pins fixed in the jacket. Inside, the device is designed so that the crystallizing fondant moves from the syrup to the mass outlet, and to achieve the maximum efficiency of the whipping device, it is important that it be filled. This is achieved by using an adjustable output slider.
The quality of the fondant is mainly determined by the efficiency of the whipping device, which, along with the achievement of rapid crystallization should ensure removal of latent heat with a sufficient flow of water through the jacket.
melt temperature exiting the whipping device, must be less than 43,3 ° C, and the maximum formation of crystals should occur during whipping device by mechanical action and cooling. If the larger crystals will be formed after the beating, and the fondant will be rough.
The study of lipstick under a microscope should demonstrate a uniform distribution of sugar crystals in size, the largest number of which should have dimensions of 10-15 μm. The presence of a significant number of larger crystals or an uneven distribution of dimensions indicates inefficient operation of the whipping device (its mechanical part or cooling). Sometimes crystallization slows down the presence of small amounts of colloidal substances (starch, gelatin or eggs). These substances may be present if, in the preparation of a syrup, food waste from confectionery production is introduced into it in addition to sugar and glucose. The syrup from these wastes may give a dirty color, and in some cases partial inverting of sucrose may occur, and special measures are necessary for recycling (see "Reuse" below).
Machines for the production of fondant are also available in the form of small individual aggregates. The syrup for feeding to these machines can be prepared separately in the boiler or with a continuous dissolver and fed into the cooling tube and then into the whipping unit with the cooling jacket. Machines of this type are manufactured by Otto Hansel (Figure 19.8).
Re-tempering fondant
In the past, many disputes arose about the need to "ripen" the fondant mass, and pastry confectioners always left a fresh mass in the baths for "maturation." As a result, there was a need for a large amount of
ma manual work to extract the mass of the baths in tubs to melt. This practice continued to exist even after the introduction of high-performance equipment for continuous production of fondant, and by engineers took a lot of effort to overcome prejudice on which it was based.
Probably the only case that confirms the need for "ripening" is products known in the US as "cream" cream creams. If a certain consistency is required, extrusion or casing by rolls is used in their manufacture.
For the mass production of fondant cases and especially the cases intended for coating with chocolate, such a break in the sequence of operations is simply unacceptable. The tempering process necessary to convert the lipstick into a liquid for mixing with flavors, dyes and other ingredients, as well as making it possible to cast lipstick in a mold or a chocolate shell, has been devoted to a lot of research.
Traditionally, the process is to put lipstick from the baths in a steam-jacketed boilers equipped with blades, and heat it up to 57-66 ° C temperature, adding the syrup bean[*]. Bob was prepared as a syrup of sugar and glucose for the same formula as lipstick, but sometimes with a higher glucose content. There was a period when a low concentration bob was prepared (up to 50%), but this is quite dangerous, since with an excess of syrup, the finished lipstick may be fermentable. Bob should have a concentration of at least 75% of the syrup concentration and it is better that the sugar / glucose ratio in it be the same as for the fondant.
The temperature of the molten material is dependent on the moisture content of the fondant mass, and composition of the ingredients required in the casting yield.
The process of tempering increases the fluidity due to the increased share of the syrup phase. This growth phase, the syrup is provided by some crystals of sugar fondant, fallen into the solution or partially dissolved and reduced in size.
Hot liquid fondant after casting in a mold or shell cools and solidifies. This is due to the growth of sugar crystals from the syrup phase, and increasing the size of existing crystals (a process opposite to that which occurs during the melting). Growth in the number and size of crystals fused lipstick gives a coarse texture and low moisture content of such a rupture place looks sweet break.
When tempering fondant crystals depends on the magnitude of the speed of melting and cooling, and the achieved temperature level. Temperatures above 65,5 ° C leads to a marked increase in the syrup phase, and when it crystallizes it often gives large crystals. If at the end of the tempering temperature is raised to higher then receive more coarse texture fondant-like consistency Fudge.
Dimensions cream crystals for high-quality cuts must be 20-30 microns. Any more or less significant amount of crystals with dimensions of more than 30 microns coarsens taste.
Currently, it is proved that regardless of the applied melting process fondant it is not necessary to pre-maturation. Freshly fondant can be heated together with the flavors, bean and any other ingredients to the melting temperature, and then cast into molds or shell without any adverse effect on product quality.
To produce fondant directly from the plant mixers of continuous action have been developed, but this method is better used when a large yield of a single formulation is required (Fig. 19.6 and 19.7). In many cases it is preferable to keep the base fondant (with or without the bean). To do this, you can use large tanks with a water jacket and slowly moving stirrer blades with automatic maintenance of the water temperature in the tank jacket at the level of 49-54 ° C. Since the tank is closed with a lid, ventilation is desirable to prevent excessive condensation of moisture. In such conditions, you can store lipstick to 12 h and the growth of crystals in it is negligible. The fondant mass can be removed from the mixing tank in the boiler with syrup, flavors and other ingredients. For the production of products with several housings on forming machines, the fondant mass from the tank comes in sufficiently liquid to be pumped into the boilers through the pipelines. Sometimes a continuous circulation through pipes is used between the storage tank and boilers, but in this system, a partial loss of moisture occurs from the fondant and must be carefully monitored - otherwise the product will have a coarse consistency cream, and on the nozzles that set the cream, there will be "Tails" are formed (see the diagram in Figure 19.9, complementing Figure 19.6 and 19.7).
Or whipped cream frappe is prepared by dissolving egg albumen or substitute thereof in water, and then it is mixed with a sugar / glucose syrup. This mixture is whipped into a foam with a high speed beaters at normal or elevated pressure.
It offers many formulations with different concentrations of syrup, and various amounts of a substance that promotes whipping. Technologist formulation is developed to produce the finished product texture desired. The following are typical examples of egg frappe frappe and a substitute.
Egg Frappe Egg white113 g

To withstand in water in a cool place 24 h and a passFine sieve


213 g


2,26 kg

Dissolve and cook until 107,2 ° C

glucose Syrup

3,17 kg



Allow the syrup to cool to 60 ° C, then add the egg white solution and whip. The density of the resulting foam (frappe) is about 0,35-0,5. As a result,
19.9Fig. 19.9. Scheme of the device for the continuous production of fondant. Company Baker Perkins, Peterborough, England
The product obtained at point A, requires further processing. The product obtained at point B, ready for immediate use.
The diagram shows that the non-crystallized bob from the cooker 4 is transferred to the premixing 7.
Use of Frappe: in the production of cream casings for assorted sets or candies with filling, some of the proven basic formulas and melting described above are used. If the melted lipstick with flavors and dyes is allowed to freeze, usually a very dense product is obtained, and when the frappe is turned on, a less dense consistency is obtained.
1.Test 7. Pre-mixing screw
2. The pump is 8. Frappe reservoir and pump
3. The spiral cooking appliance 9. Dye tank and pump
4 .Dosing valve 10. Flavor tank and pump
5. Cooling drum 11. Re-Mixing Screw
6. The crushing machine12. Exhaust Pump
Ku it can be stored for a limited time, it should be used in a sweet for a few hours.
Egg syrup is recommended to be pasteurized before whipping (for more details, see chapter 11).
Widely used patented agent for beating Nu / oata, the manual for the use of which the following recipes are given:
Frappe for a standard whipping machine
Hyfoama DS

99 g

Mix and beat until a thick foam

Water1,36 kg
Icing2,26 kg]
Sugar6,35 kg]Boil to 111 ° C
Water1,80 kg]

12,7 kg

Add sugar syrup to the serving, then add the mixture to the foam and beat again until thick foam
Hyfoama DS99 gMix Hyfoama and water
Add glucose and mix well

Water198 kg
Glucose0,45 kg
Sugar8,6 kg Boil to 110 ° C
Water2,72 kg

V12,2 kg

Add sugar syrup to the serving, and then add this mixture to the Nufoma dispersion and whisk 3 min at a pressure of 30 psi. inch
It is believed that frappe with Hyfoama have good stability, but it is better to use them for 24 h after manufacturing. New developments recently carried out in the USA on the basis of isolates of soy protein led to the production of special whipping proteins with certain advantages over egg and milk protein products.
The terms beaten cream (whip) and frappe (frappe) are sometimes used to characterize the density of the product, whilst the whips are usually less dense and stored worse, and the frappe is more dense, contains more syrup and is stored longer.
The knocked down creams and frappes can be used in fondant bases in various amounts (depending on the desired final density). Using them in an amount of 7-10 pounds per 100 pounds of a fondant base gives a good whipped (soft) texture without complicating the setting on the mechanical equipment, and up to 25 pounds for 100 pounds is used for very light sweets, but it can be difficult to cast. When using this formulation, extrusion methods can be used.
Equipment for the production frappe
Frappe is used not only in fondant mass, but also in nougat, fudge, marshmallow and in other products where a less thick consistency is required.
The usual whipping machine. For small batches, you can use a vertical planetary whipping machine (for example, a Hobart whipping machine), and for larger lots, U-shaped baths with horizontal whipping bodies are sometimes used.
Whiskers for work under pressure. In such machines, the principle of beating the syrup and foaming agent (foaming agent) in a hermetically sealed container is used, the final density of the frappe being dependent on the amount of syrup and the air pressure in the tank. In machines of this type, air pressure is used to discharge the frappe through the valve and the pipe at the bottom of the tank. An example of such a machine is a Morton pressurizing machine (see the "Marshmellow" section below).
This process inevitably turns out to be periodic, but for the production of large batches, continuous machines are produced for whipping under pressure. The solution of the whipping aid in the syrup is prepared in batches or by dosing the ingredients into continuous dissolvers and then brought to the standard temperature in the storage tank until it enters the whipping machine. From this tank, the syrup is fed to a whipping machine for processing under pressure at a standard speed along with a dosed flow of air or an inert gas (eg nitrogen) at a given pressure. The aerated batch is continuously unloaded through a non-return valve, and its density is controlled by the flow rate of the syrup and air (Oakes the machine according to this principle). For the continuously operating equipment using eggs or gelatin syrups, sanitation is of great importance. Remains of the product in pipelines, pumps, etc. can serve as a breeding ground for microorganisms, and therefore it is necessary to carry out planned washing and disinfection (preferably using removable pipelines and rollers).
Tempering fondant
We have already partially considered the tempering of the fondant. With the most flexible technology, low-pressure boilers with steam jacket (20 psi) with a capacity of up to 500 pounds (230 kg) are used, which should be equipped with slow kneading units with blades continuously cleaning the boiler walls. The movement of the blades should move the mass in a vertical direction. In this process, it is important to ensure thorough mixing in minimum time, especially when using frappe. Continuous stirring or stirring at high speed causes deterioration of foaming and density fluctuations. Equipment for tempering the fondant mass is produced by different manufacturers.
Tempering the fondant for casting creams in a cauldron. Creams for a number of formulations can be made for casting into cells molded in starch, into chocolate molds or, more recently, into metal, plastic or rubber molds.
When using a fondant paste from a storage tank, the following is usually done. The amount of frappe according to the recipe is added to the boiler for remelting. Then add the fondant from the storage tank with occasional stirring until the amount of the formulation is reached. After that, about half of the bean is kneaded and the temperature of the mixture is raised to the melting point - 60-63 ° C - or other desired. An additional amount of bean is then added to obtain the desired flowability, flavoring agents, coloring agents and acid solution. When using an invertase, it should be added as late as possible before casting, and the temperature of the fondant should not exceed 65 ° C (see chapter 16).
If jam or concentrated fruit pulp is used as ingredients, they cause significant dilution and may increase the volume of the syrup phase to such an extent that, upon cooling after casting, crystallization may occur to form coarse crystals (granulation). In such cases, the bean may not be required or, at least, its amount may be reduced. When adding fruits or their pulp, care should be taken to ensure that the concentration of the syrup phase does not decrease below 75%, and it is always safer to use fruit in the form of jam or canned foods with sugar or glucose syrup also with a minimum concentration of 75%[†]. This is also true when adding to the fondant mass of chopped canned fruit or candied fruit. The canned fruit and peel (candied fruits) are often characterized by the concentration of the syrup phase at about 70% and, when used, can create areas of microbiological activity in the finished product. Such fruits should be heat treated in syrups with a higher concentration (see chapter 14).
Periodically, proposals appear to include in the pomade mass various gelatinous or colloidal ingredients in the tempering stage or in the syrup before boiling and whipping. In our opinion, the indicated merits of these additives are usually exaggerated. Colloidal substances added in the syrup stage slow crystallization in the whipping machine. Gelatin, agar or starch syrup, introduced during tempering, leads to "freezing" of the cooled mass, and this is not necessarily an improvement. Some flavorings based on essential oils can have a destructive effect on the aeration provided by the introduction of frappe, and some can be destroyed by oxidation (see the "Marshmallow" section below).
Casting fondant starch
The main technology for the production of fondant chocolate candy shells over the years has been washing out the liquid fondant (prepared as described above) into grooves molded in trays with cornstarch. These trays, usually measuring 80 x 40 cm and a depth of about 5 cm, are loosely filled with corn starch, known as molding starch. Although pure corn starch can also be used, the molds are better formed in starch impregnated with approximately 0,05-0,10% of refined mineral oil (white medical oil). "Used" starch better preserves prints (molds) than "fresh", because of sugar residues from confectionery products, which causes the starch particles to stick together. To reduce production costs in most confectioneries, starch is used until a complete replacement is required.
In a filled tray with starch, the recesses are molded by means of a rigid flat wooden or metal plate with rows of projections, the shape of which corresponds to those grooves that must be made in starch, and ultimately the shape of the cast products. These protrusions are often called "pips" (pips - bone, grain) and are made of plastic, wood or metal. To prevent sticking to them starch when pressed, they can be polished with graphite. The distances between the protuberances and the amount of starch in the tray are such that after the "molding" there remain clear prints and a flat upper surface. In this case, the moisture content of the starch is important, and in order that the cast fondant mass can be removed from the trays with starch after cooling, its outer layer should be sufficiently dense, which is achieved by transferring moisture from the fondant mass to starch.
Under normal operating conditions, the equilibrium moisture content of the molding starch is 12-14%, which gives a poor surface to the fondant bodies and can even lead to the sticking of starch to the surface of each product, which significantly impairs its taste. For the casting of most fondant masses, the moisture content in the starch should be 6-8%, and under these conditions the fondant casings are removed from the starch through 5-8 h, if they have cooled down sufficiently during this time. Such conditions make it possible to obtain a hard surface of the articles.
You can also cast a fondant mass in starch with a moisture content of 9-11% (if left overnight), but a slightly different texture of the products is obtained. The first method is preferable especially in the case of masses with a high content of frappe or jam, pulp and other hygroscopic ingredients. In practice, the conditions listed in Table 1 are successfully applied. 19.1, selected as a result of extensive experimental work.
Depending on the working conditions, planning and properties of the hulls, other conditions were applied. Interesting point 1 in Table. 19.1. Here, the melting temperature of the cast fondant rose to a higher 74 ° C. The fondant mass in the starch was cooled by the flow of air, and solidification occurred with a slight loss of moisture. Fondant cases had a loose texture with sugar crystals more than usual.
The temperature of the starch in which the fondant is cast is important. Starch should be properly dried and be non-flammable, otherwise the mass may "drown" in the starch to form a crust. The optimum temperature for fondant is 30-32 ° C. This does not apply to some jams or jellies with low moisture content, where hot starch and heating in the oven are used.
Some fondant casings after extraction from starch can be stored for a limited time using the second method. The most suitable conditions for pomade cases stored in thin layers in ventilated trays are 18,3 ° C and relative humidity 65%. Under these conditions, some drying of the surface occurs, which prevents the casing from sticking together.
The regulation of the condition of fondant and other bodies cast into starch for feeding them to coating machines, which also receives many other bodies - dairy, jelly and fajj - the task is not easy. It is also not easy to adjust the moisture content of the starch into which the casing is cast. These problems will be discussed below in the sections on equipment.
Equipment for molding confections in starch
Until recently, the production of all confectionery cases was done manually and semi-mechanically. Such methods deserve a description, since
Table 19.1. Effect of moisture content on starch when casting fondant
Product type

Keeping of
Moisture in the starch,
Atmospheric conditionsExtraction after
Castings, h
1. Simple fondant body, without frappe, only flavorings based on essential oils10-11

Temperature 16-17 ° С Rel. Humidity 55-60%
Air blowing of trays
Through 3-4

2. Lipstick with frappe, essential oil or synthetic flavor. Some lipsticks that contain jam or pulp6-8

Ambient temperature,
Rel. Humidity 55-60%

Air movement only due to convection

Through 5-8

3. Lipstick with frappe (or without), essential oil or synthetic flavorings. Some fondant cases with jam



Через 16-24, оставлены на выходные

4. Very light lipsticks, marshmallow



Sheet 6-16, depending on recipes
They are still widely used in experienced confectionery shops. The applied methods, which are currently mechanized, are represented in the diagrams (Figure 19.10).
The first achievement of mechanization was the machine that made depressions in the tray with starch and moved the tray on a short chain conveyor to a multi-nozzle jigging device, fed from a bunker, which received a hot, fluid pomade mass. The jigging machine, working with the help of the piston, ensured accurate dosing of the liquid fondant mass into each starch groove. Trays with starch were fed manually one at a time from one side of the machine, and after filling the rows of depressions by hand from the jigging machine, they were also manually removed from the other side and stacked to allow the fondant casings to cool and freeze. After solidification, they were removed from the starch and the settled starch was removed in another machine, which also filled starch with empty trays. Sometimes the machine was supplemented with a rotating screen to separate the large residues of lipstick from the starch before filling the trays.
To dry the starch, the filled trays were laid in a heated room before use and shortly before filling with a fondant mass, they were removed from there. To obtain the bodies, dry, but not hot, starch is required.
In some confectionery factories this method is still used, but in large enterprises the sequence of operations is completely mechanized in the original mogul machine (Fig. 19.11 and 19.12).
19.10 Fig. 19.10. Casting fondant casings in starch by hand
For manual casting, the set-off product is obtained by raising and lowering the pointed rod. After cooling and solidification, the fondant bodies are separated by sieving
This machine performs the following operations:
  1. Obtaining a stack of trays with starch, as well as pre-cooled and frozen casing.
  2. Removing the trays one by one and feeding them to the first compartment of the machine, which turns them over the vibrating sieve.
  3. The vibrating screen allows the starch to pass through the holes, and the fondant bodies move along the screen, where they meet with oscillating brushes that remove most of the starch adhering to them. These fondant casings are then removed from the machine into trays or onto conveyors, and then they enter the chocolate glaze or conditioning system. Before the coating device, the remaining starch dust adhering to the fondant cases is removed by blowing air and the recovery device (the modern equipment for supplying the fondant casings directly to the coating device is described below).
  4. The starch is then automatically fed to the recirculation unit, where it first passes through a sieve to remove the particles of the frozen fondant, and then through the drying apparatus (see below).
  5. The recovered starch returns through the conveyor to the mogul machine, where they are filled with empty trays that have been flipped at the stage of 2, and then the starch is leveled.
  6. The filled trays then pass under the device for forming the cells (a plate with projections) operating synchronously with the movement of the filled trays forward to the device for depositing the fondant mass.
  7. Trays with starch, in which the cells are formed, move under a row of depositing attachments, and due to the synchronization, a number of cased products from the fondant mass (which can be in cells depending on the size of the device up to 30-40).
  8. Trays with warm liquid products are then automatically stacked and fed to the cooling room.

Several moguls can be used to condition starch, and sometimes the dried starch is used for partial conditioning.

19.11 Fig. 19.11. The machine for forming in starch NID 301S. Firm NID Pty., Alexandria, Australia

19.12 Fig. 19.12. Machine with external conditioning system of starch in the section
Of the flow of starch passing through the sequence of moguls, but this procedure is best avoided if proper mixing is not provided.
From the microbiological point of view, heating and drying of starch are very useful at regular intervals. Yeast, mold and bacteria can accumulate in the constantly used starch, and periodic heating and drying significantly reduce the viability of these organisms.
Some mogul machines are equipped with built-in drying devices that use elevated temperatures, a pneumatic lift and a cyclone. Dryers are explosive, and therefore in all installations for drying starch it is necessary to comply with the regulatory requirements for the presence of intrinsically safe switches, explosion-proof walls, ventilation devices and containers with sand to extinguish fires. It is believed that modern advances in the field of starch drying reduce the danger of explosion and save on heating. An example is a fluidized bed drier and a modular cooler that can be built into any mogul system, the circuit of which is shown in Fig. 19.13.
The Vortex system with a closed system can complement any mogul machine for aeration conditioning of starch with an output of 8-10 t / h. Firm NID Pty., Alexandria, Australia.
Installation of pneumatic starch removal (Figure 19.14). In this new machine, there is no need to transfer products collected in trays after sieving, manually to the conveyor to the coating machine.
The casing compartment is similar to that shown in Fig. 19.11. Firm NID Pty., Alexandria, Australia.
The sequence of operations performed:
1. A tray filled with molding starch with articles deposited therein is placed under a tightly fitting cover.
2. The tray and its contents are moved by a special device onto a conveyor with a mesh band. During this process, the tray, its contents and conveyor or
19.13 Fig. 19.13. Scheme of installation \ Zortex for aeration conditioning of starch
The platform carrying the tray (slapper) is stationary relative to each other (the tray is turned upside down)
3. Then the tray gently rises already without contents, turns over again downwards and is placed on the inlet of the starch filling compartment. Then the tray
19.14 Fig. 19.14. Installation of pneumatic starch removal "Visk" (description in the text)
Again filled, the starch is leveled, cells are created in it and the tray is transferred to the depositor.
4.Crack is separated from the products (which remain located in the same order as in the tray) with compressed air from the fast-rotating nozzles. This fluidized starch enters the air conditioning and recirculation system of the starch.
5. Products freed from the bulk of the starch are sent to the final cleaning, where all the remaining starch is removed from all surfaces of the products by compressed air from rotating nozzles with small holes.
6. Products still in the same positions, after leaving the pneumatic starch removal plant, are turned over for transfer to the conveyor of the coating machine.
Such a system, unlike the traditional technology of starch removal, allows you to work with fragile products such as sugar cases of liqueur sweets.
Some jigging moguls can produce two types of products - with two separate cased products or with one product in the other. The second system is very convenient for products with jam. Nuts, cherries or other products can be placed manually or mechanically in the grooves in the starch, which are then filled with a shrink-wrapped fondant.
The jigging mogul units consist of Y-shaped water-jacketed bunkers and are equipped with large-sized large tray screens from above, to remove any impurities and lumps. The hoppers are maintained filled with a melting system.
Along with a wide variety of fondant masses, many other types of confectionery products can be cast into starch molds, provided that a formulation is developed in which the product solidifies with cooling and partial drying (jelly, nut pastes, marzipan, rahat-lukum, soft milk sweets , Fudge, Marshmallow, many kinds of chewing gum and pastille).
For the fondant texture is important, and often make the mistake of is their over-drying. Typically, this defect occurs due to the fact that due to breakage or poor production planning in starch products remain too long.
The moisture content should be kept within rather narrow limits - fondants with moisture content much lower than 10,5% usually are too hard, and at 13% and higher mechanization of work is difficult and the fondant cases can be prone to fermentation.
With the parameters of time, temperature and humidity of starch, given in Table. 19.1, we can expect the values ​​of moisture content in the sweet, given in Table. 19.2.
Benefits Mogul Systems
The mogul system was criticized for the large volume of starch circulating in it, which leads to a very high dust content of the environment. It is difficult to maintain a good sanitary condition of the equipment, but in the
The conditions of Table. 19.1

Type of product

Typical moisture content,%


Fondant case without frappe



Fondant body with frappe, essential oil or synthetic flavor



Fondant body with frappe or without it. Fondant mass may contain jam


Starch may appear in large numbers of microorganisms. However, the modified design and good maintenance reduce these problems to a minimum.
Mogul-installations, completed with stamps of various configurations, allow you to quickly change the product. Replacement of the stamp in the casting machine can be performed very quickly, and the device for creating impressions is relatively cheap.
In addition, casting into starch gives a dry crust on the set pieces, which makes it easier to work with them, gives interesting internal textures, and in some cases allows the use of formulations that can not be used in the case of rubber or metal forms and extrusion methods.
Dextrose Pump (βGlucose)
The physical and chemical properties of dextrose were considered in the chapter 8, and its monohydrate has recently been increasingly used in confectionery technologies. In addition to less sweetness than sugar, the unusual crystallization properties of glucose in various technologies can prove to be both valuable and harmful.
In syrups with a high content of dextrose, the crystals settle on exposure and cooling. If no seed is injected into the syrup, these crystals will have the form of druses, and upon seeding, they will be oriented and needles, which gives an unpleasant "waxy" texture. The mechanical whipping of the crystallized product leads to a disruption in the orientation, and a soft product similar to the sweet is deposited in chocolate molds and only slightly hardens when aged, and does not acquire a rigid waxy texture.
The texture of the finished dextrose sweets depends on the content of the last, the degree of mechanical mixing and the degree of crystallization that occurs after casting the fondant.
In some product formulations with a chocolate casing, it is desirable to have a liquid fill for casting at a temperature below the melting point of the chocolate, but non-flowing after a short period of time when crust formation is completed and it is removed from the mold.
The exact content of dextrose depends on the properties of the body of the product, and it is best to add it in the form of a frappe of the following composition:
dextrose monohydrate

45,3 kg

Glucose syrup (nizkokonvertirovanny)

45,3 kg


10,4 kg

Boil until 104 ° C, cooled to 52 ° C (to be sure to maintain the temperature).
Then add egg white (1,8 kg) and water (4,5 kg). The protein must be pre-conditioned in water, dissolved and filtered. This mixture is "seeded" by continuous mixing, followed by whipping to the desired density. It can be added to the finished product after "seeding", and then beat. In many cases, it turns out that the desired consistency of the finished lipstick is attached to the addition of 5-10% frappe.
When using special cooling equipment for molding into molds at high temperature, it is not recommended to use dextrose-based frappé (to prevent melting of the chocolate case).
In lipsticks with a high content of dextrose, the following composition of the base syrup can be used in combination with frappe:
dextrose monohydrate

20 kg

Glucose syrup (nizkokonvertirovanny)

11,3 kg


9 kg


5 kg

Dissolve, bring to a boil and cool to 30 ° C. The fondant mass is prepared by adding about 2% of the previously made fudge or baited glucose syrup with a holding time of at least 16h. After that, the solution should solidify into a thick paste, which can be beaten with frappe from glucose, flavoring substances and a certain amount of beans (if necessary) until the necessary fluidity is achieved.
Sweets based on dextrose to prepare hard, and so you need to experiment a bit.
Milk filling, toffee, fudge
These confectionery products owe their properties mainly to the presence of milk, butter and some vegetable fats. Milk solids when heated in the presence of water and sugars (sugar, invert sugar, glucose) acquire a characteristic flavor due to the reaction between milk proteins and reducing sugars. This process is known as the Mayar reaction and is described as a special type of caramelization. Caramelization of another type occurs in sugar, glucose and invert sugar, when syrups are cooked at temperatures of 149-157 ° C. A stronger caramelization, giving a different flavor and aroma, occurs during the alkaline treatment (for example, in the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with boiling syrup at about 150 ° C). "Caramel color" is also obtained by the action of ammonia on some reducing sugars.
Oil when added to a high-boiling syrup is partially decomposed and gives a characteristic and attractive taste and aroma. No vegetable fat used instead of it, do not achieve the same result, although some fats have been developed that give a taste that is somewhat closer to the one that gives the oil. Brown sugar, light and black molasses give a taste that fits well with caramelized milk, and these sugars are widely used in the formulas of milk fillings.
The taste / aroma obtained by heating the milk of milk with sugars depends on the method and duration of heating, and this causes heated discussions in connection with the introduction of mechanization. Continuous processes of making milk fillings invariably led to a loss of flavor / flavor as compared to batch processes, but this lack of taste / aroma is overcome by the introduction of "caramelizers" when the continuously manufactured filling is kept at a temperature slightly below the manufacturing temperature in containers with slowly moving blades up to Forming an additional flavor / flavor. This process is continuous, but there is more product in the system.
The difference between milk fillings and iris is determined by differences in the content of milk and fat, the type of fat and the moisture content, depending on the degree of boiling. There are soft and hard dairy fillings, as well as soft and hard iris.
Continuous cooking and lack of flavor can be an advantage in the production of dairy fillings with fruit or mint flavor. In this case, excessive caramelization may predominate over weak flavors / odors.
In all of the products described above, the sugars are completely in solution in a supersaturated form with completely dispersed fat and a dry milk residue (CMO).
Fudge and some "graining" resemble sweet dairy toppings, and part of the sugar in the form of small crystals distributed in the remaining syrup with the fat and dairy ingredients.
Dairy ingredients
The properties and composition of dairy products are discussed in chapter 10. Their behavior in the production of confectionery products depends significantly on the state of milk proteins and the dispersion of milk fat, as the processing of liquid natural milk in condensed milk or milk changes.
Natural milk is rarely used to produce milk sweets because of the large volume of water that must be separated. In the production of condensed milk (without sugar), this water is more efficiently removed in multi-hull evaporators (condensing units).
If liquid or condensed milk is used for making confectionery products (without sugar), then stabilizers are added in the form of sodium carbonate (or, if allowed, phosphate or sodium citrate), so that the pH rises above the coagulation point (isoelectric point) of the milk protein .
When storing and souring milk, the pH of fresh milk drops from about 6,5 to 4,5. The lower the pH, the faster the protein precipitates when heated (occlusion occurs).
Most manufacturers of milk candies prefer condensed milk with sugar, which can be whole or fat-free. Whole condensed milk with sugar contains milk fat, which gives flavor and aroma, but skimmed condensed milk with sugar gives a good paste, and vegetable fats with appropriate emulsifiers can be used instead of milk fat. Also, whole and skimmed milk powder is used, but it is important to make sure that the powder is dispersed well before introduction to the confectionery - otherwise large particles may appear in the finished product and the product will be less stored due to incomplete protein distribution.
Recipes for these types of milk can be adapted for the product being produced, it is better to introduce all vegetable fat into the milk, and then perform thorough emulsification. It is useful to prepare these types of reconstituted milk with a higher moisture content than the standard condensed milk - this helps emulsify and dissolve the dried milk. Reconstituted milk with a high moisture content should not be stored, as it is susceptible to microbiological damage.
There are various methods for reconstituting milk powder, but milk obtained by spray drying, which is characterized by good solubility, should always be used, regardless of whether whole unmodified skim milk is used. Dry milk, obtained by rolling, is unsatisfactory in its properties.
Recovery of milk powder
The following are typical recipe and recovery method:

25 kg (or 35 kg)

Dry skim milk (spray drying)22 kg

Sugar45 kg
Vegetable fat melting point about 32 ° C)

8 kg or more
(Depending on the recipe Products)
lecithin400 g
Vigorously mix the water (cold), milk powder and sodium bicarbonate. Then add sugar and continue to stir, heating to a temperature no higher than 70 ° C.
Fat melts, and the lecithin in it is dispersed. Then the mixture is added to the milk and sugar and again mixed well when heated to 70 ° C.
The mixture is then passed through an emulsification plant or a colloid mill to ensure complete dispersion. In the resulting mixture, there is a lot of water (especially when indicated in the recipe for a large number). The mixture must be used within a day. All used accessories and equipment must be thoroughly washed and sterilized after use.
Real confectioners claim that there is no substitute for butter in irises and milk candies, and in terms of taste / aroma this is indeed the case. Butter is also emulsified more easily than vegetable fats.
Nevertheless, many kinds of good milk sweets are made with vegetable fats (for many years the recognized oil for soft iris was cured palm kernel oil), however, due to the volatility of prices and supplies, many other vegetable oils are currently used (see chapter 9). The currently purchased fats are mostly well purified, and the consumer's task is not to spoil them by overheating during melting, which reduces their stability and can cause oxidative rancidity over time. Heating fat without other ingredients in the presence of copper speeds up the appearance of rancidity, but it is surprising that when cooking milk sweets with sugars, copper boilers are successfully used. Nevertheless, carefully tested tests of copper and stainless steel boilers with the same composition of the product show that the use of stainless steel gives a product with a longer shelf life.
Properties of various types of sugar are described in chapter 8. Brown sugar and syrups are used in dairy sweets to add an extra flavor / flavor and can be added if necessary to replace a portion or all of the white sugar.
The formulations, technology and equipment for the production of milk candy, toffee and Fudge
There are numerous variations in the composition of milk candy, dictated by the requirements for their cost and quality. Milk candy of the highest quality, as a rule, is characterized by a higher content of CMO and fats.
Below is an experimental formulation of soft milk candies of high quality. For those who study confectionery, the preparation of this product in a gas-fired boiler and mechanical stirrer can be a great help for the production of this popular confectionery product. The experiment can be supplemented by changes in some of the ingredients and the manufacture of Fudge.

3 kg

Sugar, white granulated

4,5 kg

Sugar, brown

4,5 kg

Glucose syrup (DE 42)

7,7 kg

Whole condensed milk with sugar

8,2 kg

hardened vegetable
Fat (melting point 32 ° C)
3,6 kg

G lyophilized monostearate

227 g

All ingredients are placed in a cauldron and a mixer is started. Heating is carried out on low heat until the sugar dissolves and the ingredients are completely mixed. Sugar and any solids collected on the walls of the boiler above the liquid level are removed after stopping the stirrer with a wet brush. Heating and mixing of a uniformly boiling mixture continue, increasing the heat, the level of which is determined experimentally: strong heating leads to burning and the appearance of dark particles in the mixture. The degree of boiling is determined by a hand thermometer, which must be stored in hot water before use. Then the heating is reduced, the stirrer is stopped, and the thermometer is quickly moved in the mixture until the temperature becomes constant. The boiling is continued and the measurement is repeated until the thermometer begins to show 118 ° C, after which the fire is quenched, the mixture is continued for several minutes, and then the mixture is discharged to the cooling table. Pay attention to the color change when heated and on the cooling table.
Experiment 1. Sometimes the mixture is digested, and noticeably, as the temperature rises rapidly above 118 ° C. At the first boiling (described above) part of the batch can be left in the boiler, continuing heating until reaching 135 ° C. The product will become very dark. It can be "corrected" by adding water and boiling to 118 ° C. The end result will be completely different - there will be a strong, possibly "burnt" taste / aroma and dark color. It is not recommended to correct the error in this way. The sample can also be taken when the temperature of the candy mass reaches 127 ° C - solid milk candies are obtained.
Experiments 2,3, 4. In these experiments, glucose syrup is replaced with:
a) low glucose syrup with DE;
b) a high glucose syrup with DE;
C) Invert sugar syrup.
In all cases, the mixture is cooked at 118 ° C, but the final product will be markedly different. A mixture containing glucose with a low DE will have an increased viscosity (noticeable during casting) and, ultimately, will become stiffer and less sweet. Caramel containing glucose with high DE will be more liquid and sweet. Invert sugar gives a higher fluidity and a darker color of the finished product; It will also be noticeable that the product is noticeably dark on the cooling table. Taste and flavor also change - some milk taste is lost and a tendency to bitterness appears.
Experiment 5 (Getting the Fudge). The formula of the basic mixture is similar to the 1 experiment - glucose is used with DE 42, but 3,22 kg of sweet is additionally added as described below.
The mixture is heated to 118 ° C, half of the batch is discharged to another boiler and cooled to 82 ° C by immersing the boiler in water. Half of the sweets are added to the batch part at 118 ° C, and the other half at 82 ° C. In each case, the sweet is well kneaded into the mixture, and then both products are discharged onto the cooling table.
Milk mixture with fondant, added at a lower temperature, will begin to "harden" pretty quickly, and the second will remain soft for quite a long time. Through 20 h, the first Fudge will have a fairly loose (friable) texture, and the second will still be soft, although some signs of "congealing" will be visible. When the sweet is added to the hot mixture, the sugar crystals in the sweet are almost completely dissolved, and in the cooled portion they are preserved and promote the crystallization of the sugar in the original mixture.
The texture of milk chocolates
Milk may be a soft candy, a middle and a solid consistency with the following boiling ranges and humidity:

Range of boiling points, С

Moisture contents, %










The softer layer generally milk is used to coat bars and extruded confectionery layers.
When boiling in an open boiler, it is rather difficult to control the moisture content with a hand-held thermometer, since it is necessary to suspend the stirrer, and the delay in obtaining readings not only gives incorrect results, but also leads to overheating of the product at the boiler surface. Some cookers for the milk layer are equipped with built-in thermometers, designed so that they pass between rotating blades, but these thermometers are often so protected by a mass of metal that also give incorrect results.
The best way to record temperature is to measure it with a thermocouple or resistance thermometer. These devices are equipped with reliable sensors that can be placed in a boiling product and connected by cable to the device. With continuous cooking, the sensor is inserted into the mixture flow from the cooker and operates the controller as described in the "Fondant Production" section above.
Experienced confectioner is able to determine the hardness of the mixture, taking a small sample of the boiling mixture and then dip it into the water, although the value of this method is questionable.
The values ​​given above depend on the content of the CMO and fat, and it is best to evaluate the texture with a penetrometer. A standard penetrometer used in the petroleum industry to assess the viscosity of bitumen can be adapted for a caramel cooler (using a cone or blunt needle, stable readings are obtained after maturing for 1-2 h). In one of the modifications of the penetrometer a spring-loaded piston is used, which controls the circular scale (at the same time, the ambient temperature can be adjusted). This device is mounted in the installation and the data takes into account the boiling point. You can take a sample from the boiling mass, cool it with water and take the reading in about 1 min.
There are many variants of milk candy formulations - with less milk content, with reconstituted milk, with various fats, without butter, with invert sugar instead of glucose ... They also include nuts (usually chopped), coconut, chocolate or raisins. The syrup recovered from the waste is often used in the recipe to replace part of the sugar and glucose, since milk chocolates are one of the few confectionery products that allow you to include such a syrup without deterioration.
The task of this book does not include the consideration of a large number of recipes (see the Literature to this chapter); Having mastered the basic principles of production, you can experiment creatively. A large amount of information on the formulas of milk candies is contained in the series of articles [7]. Here we only mention the substances that are added to change the usual caramel texture.
Chewing dairy sweets are made, including gelatin in an amount of about 120 g per 45,3 kg of caramel cooler. Preliminary swelling gelatin in water and before adding it at the end of cooking the product dissolve when heated.
Corn or modified starch (eg, Amtro) also leads to a change in the texture and is added at the beginning of the cooking in the form of an aqueous suspension. These products help prevent the loss of milk candy form.
The third option is the addition of a frappe, and in a typical recipe is used about 2, 5 kg frappe type Nu / oat for a caramel cooler lot in 45,3 kg. To obtain a whipped (aerated) product of low density, frappe should be included without excessive mixing.
Much of what has been said about the milk chocolates, also applies to the production of the iris, but the latter in the formulation much less moisture content, milk and fat.
Caramel-shaped hard iris is usually cooked at a temperature of 149-152 ° C (the moisture content of the product is 2-3%). Solid iris ("butter-scotch") is a special kind of iris, which, in addition to sugar and glucose, contains only butter. Normally, lemon flavor is added to this product. A typical recipe and technology for obtaining solid iris:
Sugar sand 45,3 kg 1
Glucose syrup 113 kg / Dissolve and boil until 143-145 ° C
Water 18 kg
Then mix 3,5 kg of butter (salted) and lemon oil (1 liquid ounce, 29, 57 ml). The oil should be completely dissolved in hot syrup.
With partially chilled ductile butterscotch can work just as with toffee and caramel.
"English" iris, tiled nutty lollipops
These confectionery candies are characterized by a much lower content of fat and milk than previously described milk candies. They are usually prepared only from sugar or with very low glucose content. They are especially popular in the USA, where peanut butter lollies are sold in huge quantities. Nuts when cooking the syrup are actually roasted (the final temperature is 152-155 ° C). Below are the recipe and technology for producing a high-quality product.
Sugar sand (white)

11,3 kg

Salted oil

9 kg

Salt (added)

71 g


28,3 g

Chopped raw almonds

2,26 kg

It is advisable to use a stainless steel boiler. Melt the creamy little, add water, sugar, salt and lecithin, mix well with mild heat until the temperature reaches the temperature of 127 ° C. Then add chopped almonds and continue heating until the temperature reaches 152 ° C. At this stage, a noticeable darkening occurs between 152 and 155 ° C, and the mixture becomes more flowable. Quickly release the mixture on a cold table with a layer about 0,6 cm thick. This thickness is very important - if it is not observed, the iris becomes digested and takes on a burnt aftertaste. For the formation of tiles in the hot liquid iris, a dividing frame can be pressed. Modifications are possible with a reduced content of butter and other types of nuts. In this case, you can use a certain amount of glucose syrup with fried or unsweetened nuts. The degree of "roasting", obtained with the addition of nuts at different stages of the cooking process, allows you to get different taste options.
Fudge (jersey or Italian cream)
The experimental preparation of the fudge was described above. The appearance of a confectionery product called "fudge" is apparently associated with the occasional crystallization of a candy mass prepared with a high sugar content. And indeed, if a soft milk candy mass with a high sugar content is vigorously mixed, it is very likely that when it is cooled, crystallization will occur. This kind of crystallization is uncontrollable and gives a large grain, and after a while spots appear on the surface. More reliable results are achieved when crystallization is caused by the addition of fudge. At the same time, the fudge obtained as a result of rapid mixing is a product that gives the impression of "home", and it has its followers.
The taste, aroma and texture of the fudge are determined by the degree of boiling of the original milk mass and the content of the sweet. The fudge crystallization is also influenced by the ratio of sugar and glucose in the milk formula - the more sugar content, the faster crystallization takes place.
Fudge crystallization can also be achieved by the addition of finely milled powdered sugar to the partly cooled candy mass weight. The result is a different texture, more brittle.
As with dairy sweets, other ingredients can be added to fadzhu to obtain different products. There is one important difference between milk candies and fudge - milk candy is essentially a fat emulsion in an amorphous syrup with a dispersed milk protein, and in the faqa there is a phase of solid crystalline sugar dispersed together with fat and milk protein in the phase of a saturated solution of sugar syrup and glucose . Therefore, fudge has much higher water activity, which should be borne in mind when wrapping and packing, or when using fudge as one of the components of complex products.
Chocolate fudge is very popular in the United States. It is prepared by adding a batch of lactic candy mass prior to cooling 5-8% chocolate liquor, and then in cooling, sweet.
Equipment for the production of lactic candy mass and Fudge
The equipment that was originally used to produce the caramel cooler and iris was a simple boiler or gas powered coke. The technology was the same as described above for experimental preparation. Many confectioners believe that heating with gas or on fire is the only way to get true caramel flavor / aroma.
Later, heating was replaced with fire jacketed boilers. The technology at the same time remained a periodic and caramelization is still good. Some firms, disappointed in continuous processes, mechanized production run with a lot of coppers and pipe lines.
Nevertheless, the study of the initial periodic process showed the importance of the time factor in cooking. The Mayar reaction between milk protein, reducing sugars and water determines the final taste, and its intensity depends on the heating time, the proportion of reducing sugars and the water present.
In continuous processes currently use karamelizator allowing continuously flowing milk chocolates produced by the heater for about 20 minutes at a temperature close to the endpoint boiling breast mass. This ensures good caramelization.
There are several options for continuous technologies (the general principle is shown in Figure 19.15). Various types of cookers are available in the form of
19.15 Fig. 19.15. Scheme of continuous production of caramel color or fudge
Trays (baths) - for example, heated from inside rotating "snails" in a heated tray or a mixer in a steam heated bath. The base caramel mixture moves when cooking along the tray (Figure 19.16). The same design can be used for cooling.
Especially suitable for the production of Fudge trough the cooler, where sweet extruded into a cooling tray. This method produces a different product, and it is important to understand that Fudge pieces cut from the plate prepared as described above by using the boiler, characterized by brittleness and a continuous process (particularly extrusion) is a more soft paste.
In the case of continuous technology, it was found that it is useful to use a sweetener with a higher sugar content - the ratio of sugar to glucose syrup 10: 1 instead of the usual 4: 1 or 3: 1.
There are also various designs of heat exchangers, thin-film and with a cleanable surface. When we are going to use these cookers to produce dairy candy masses, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of forming dairy products on the surfaces of the burnt films. In this case, the heat transfer is substantially reduced, and in the final product, dark particles can appear. Removing these films is a complex process that requires filling the cooking appliance with concentrated alkali solutions and thoroughly washing them.
19.16 Fig. 19.16. Machine for caramel preparation Tourrell
1 - brewing machine, 2 - mixer
The cooker of the apparatus with a steam jacket and an exhaust flap has a tubular structure with five separate sections. The apparatus has a special mixing spiral chamber ("snail") and an adjustable drive. The second section, used as a caramelizer and for mixing flavors, fat, etc., is arranged in the same way as a cooking appliance, but with three sections of smaller diameter. Typically, the capacity is 450 kg / h, but machines are also produced that produce up to 675 kg / h.
Company Tourell-Gardner, Cornwall, England
Krokanty, pralinye (Meadows), plitochnyye lyedyentsy
These products somewhat resemble iris, but usually do not contain dairy ingredients. Their description in different countries causes significant difficulties. "Praliné" (praline) in English-speaking countries means a nut-paste prepared by roasting nuts in sugar syrup, which is cooked at high temperature, followed by grinding. In Germany, this product is called "nugat" (nougat). The word "praline" in Germany is associated with all the chocolate sweets with stuffing. The term "Crokant" (Croquant, Krokant) usually means pieces of nuts fried in syrup, which is brewed at high temperature (they are also called tart candies ("Brittles"))[3].
Pralinye and meadows

Бланшированный миндаль

4,53 kg

Wood nuts (funduk)

4,53 kg


8,16 kg

Almonds and hazelnuts are fried at high temperatures (143-149 ° C). Sugar dissolved in a minimum amount of water is brought to 157 ° C, roasted nuts are added to the hot syrup and reheated to 157 ° C. You can also add nuts to the syrup as soon as the sugar has dissolved, and then bring the mixture to 157 ° C.
The hot mixture is poured onto a water cooled table. After cooling, the resulting solid mass is broken, ground in a suitable mill, and then passed through grinding rollers. The nut oil content is about 30%, and after grinding an easily processed paste is obtained which can be used to impart flavor / flavor and mixing with other ingredients.
Chopped hazelnuts (hazelnuts), almonds or peanuts 2,26 kg
Sugar 4,53 kg
Sugar is melted in a vat with low heating (it is very important that all sugar is in the molten mass). Small deposits on the side of the tank should be introduced into the mass (no charring is allowed during melting). After the completion of melting, add and knead well the chopped nuts (before the introduction of the syrup, it is better to heat the nuts). The hot mixture is poured on the cooling tables with a thin layer to prevent overheating. The mixture passes through a plastic state in which it can be molded to produce bars or other articles by injecting a pressure cutter under the pressure or passing the mixture through the down rollers. The same technology with molten sugar can be used for praline production.
Traditionally, these products were made by periodic technology, using special vats mounted above gas stoves and equipped with planetary mixers, cleaning the side surfaces of the boiler (bowl). Relatively recently, equipment for continuous technology has been developed that can be used to produce praline, crocsants and other similar products (Figure 19.17 and 19.18).
Nut in chocolate ("Noisette"), chocolate and truffle pastes
Nougat recipe may be modified by the addition of liquor, chocolate or cocoa powder and vegetable fat.
Hazelnut (forest or other walnut)

4,53 kg


2,7 kg

grated cocoa

3,6 kg

Nuts are fried and boiled in sugar syrup (as in praline production). After cooling and purifying the cocoa, the grated or other ingredients are kneaded in
19.17Fig. 19.17. A cooking appliance for the continuous production of croquettes, praline, melted and caramelized sugar, tart candies and fat-containing products - soft and hard iris, etc. Toigge11-wags 1peg, Cornwall, England
19.18 Fig. 19.18. Scheme of brewing machine for Crocants. The company Tourereux-carcinum NUMXper, Cornwall, England
Mass (if necessary adding flavorings). Then the mass is poured into baking pans (this mixture is sometimes called a truffle base).
In recent years, truffles have become a very popular confectionery, especially in the US. By [11] there are three main types of truffles: American, European and Swiss types.
American truffles are usually a mixture of dark or milk chocolate with milk fat and hardened coconut oil, and the texture is regulated by changing the amount of added fat. The mixture must be subjected to a certain conditioning prior to forming, which may be rolling, cutting or (in some cases) extrusion. Since this truffle is practically free of moisture, it has a long shelf life.
European truffles combine syrup with chocolate base from similar ingredients (that is, cocoa powder, milk powder, fats, sugars, glucose syrup and invert sugar). The finished truffle is an oil-in-water emulsion with a syrup phase, adjusted to produce water activity of 0,7 or lower and a concentration of the syrup phase of 75% or more. For this correction, an invertase can be added. When these conditions are met and when the fat emulsification is good, a long shelf life of the product is achieved.
Swiss truffles are made from cream, dark chocolate and butter. Cream and butter bring to a boil, and then add the melted chocolate in approximately the following proportion: 60% chocolate, 10% butter and 30% cream. Sometimes add egg yolk. The ingredients are mixed in a whipping machine and then poured into trays for congealing. Aeration in the whipping machine contributes to giving a very soft paste after hardening some hardness. Truffles are often sprinkled with cocoa powder and to facilitate work with them, cool; While they can be rolled into balls or given a different shape. You can also form glazed sweets or roll out the blanks in the "vermicelli". Such truffles are very tasty, but the shelf life is only a few days, although freezing can extend this period to several weeks.
Such a recipe is suitable for confectionery products with a short shelf life - for example, "strawberry in chocolate".
In Europe, especially in Germany, truffles invariably contain alcoholic beverages - cognac, cointreau and rum, which significantly increases shelf life (alcohol is a good preservative). A typical recipe for truffles with condensed milk instead of cream is given below:
Dark or milk chocolate 500 g Condensed milk with sugar 500 g
Chocolate is melted, and the condensed milk is heated to about the same temperature. They are mixed in a planetary whipping machine for 3-5 min, and then with slow stirring add 75 g cointre. The mixture is poured into the pouring tray, and then molded or discharged through a tube, as described above. Truffle fillings are described in the section "Drawn Caramel Mass".

[*] Bob - a mixture of freshly prepared saharopatochnogo syrup withstand fondant. - Note. Ed.
[†] The 75% value refers to the concentration of soluble CB in the syrup phase. This concentration is determined by the refractometer (for more details, see chapter 20). - Note. aut.
[3] International terms used to refer to numerous confectionery and equipment in German, English, French and Spanish are explained in SilesiaConfiserie ManualNo. 3, Vol. 1 / 11 - Note. Aut.

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