Preparation of raw materials for production
All main raw materials and auxiliary materials used for the production of confectionery products must meet the requirements of existing standards or temporary specifications. Raw materials and materials before entering the production are subjected to laboratory analysis in accordance with applicable standards.
The process of preparation of raw materials to production includes the following operations:
- exemption of raw materials from the container;
- sifting and filtering to remove impurities.
The following additional operations are used depending on the characteristics of the process:
- blending different batches of raw materials in order to obtain the desired product quality;
- tempering the raw material;
- dissolving the raw material in water or other solvents;
- special sanitary treatment of certain types of raw materials.
Release of materials from the packaging
Bags with raw materials should be pre-cleaned from the surface with a brush and gently slit along the seam. The ends and scraps of twine from ripped seams should be removed and assembled in a special collection.
Barrels of raw materials and semi-finished products must be cleaned from the surface and washed with water before being sent to production workshops or before being released from the contents. Especially carefully should be washed bottoms and chimes. When opening the barrels should be carefully monitored to ensure that raw materials do not fall into the wood particles and other foreign objects.
Unpacking of raw materials entering the boxes should be carried out in a specially designated place, isolated from production sites. It is necessary to strictly follow that nails, chips, pieces of wire from the boxes do not get into the raw material.
Metal cans of raw materials before opening must be carefully obmyty warm water and wiped dry.
Upon receipt of raw materials in glass containers, the extraction of glass bottles and jars from boxes should be made in a specially designated place. In this case, all bottles or jars should be carefully inspected and the broken, cracked and damaged ones should be selected.
Intact bottles and jars of raw materials are washed with water or wiped with a clean, damp cloth and served for stripping.
Raskuporka should be done very carefully so as not to damage the edges of the necks of bottles and avoid falling glass and other foreign objects in the feed.
Contents of broken or damaged bottles and cans should be collected in a special container (barrel) with a clear large label "admixture of glass."
The question of the conditions of treatment and the possibility of using raw materials with glass allowed to have got together with the sanitary supervision.
Sifting and filtering materials
In preparation for the production of bulk types of raw materials sieved, liquid types of raw materials or raw materials used in the form of solutions, wipe or filtered to remove impurities.
As screening and filtering materials are used: metal wire mesh, metal stamped mesh, special silk fabric for sieves, gauze and canvas.
Sita wire. For the manufacture of sieves used various types of metal wire mesh:
a) steel wire mesh woven smooth (GOST 3924-47);
b) smooth woven wire mesh with square cells (GOST 3826-47);
c) steel wire woven twill mesh with square cells (GOST 4601-49).
The wire mesh of which are manufactured may have a corrosion-resistant coating.
Twin wire mesh refers to the nominal size of the cubicle in the world.
According to GOST 3924-47 produced net with mesh sizes and wire diameters shown in Table. 1.
Depending on the diameter of the wire mesh woven plain mesh divided into small, normal and high density.
In accordance with GOST 3826-47, general-purpose woven wire meshes with a smooth mesh can be in the light of the following nominal dimensions of the cell side (in mm): 20; 18; 16; 14;
12; 11; 10; 9; 8, 7; 6, 5,5; 5; 4,5; 4; 3,5; 3,2; 2,8, 2,5; 2,2; 2, 1,8; 1,6; 1,4; 1,2; 1,1; 1; 0,9; 0,8; 0,7; 0,63; 0,56; 0,5; 0,45; 0,4.
Steel woven twill wire mesh is a twill weave wire fabric with square cells with a side size from 1 to 0,25 mm. Produced by industry according to GOST 4601-49 with the following nominal dimensions of the side of the cell in the light (in mm): 1; 0,9; 0,8;
0.7; 0,63; 0,56; 0,5; 0,45; 0,4; 0,355, 0,315, 0,28, 0,25,
1 Table. Cell sizes and wire diameters
|The nominal size of the side of the cell in the lightв||Nominal|
|The nominal size of the side of the cell in the lightв||Nominal|
Sita pressed (punch). Stampings punching screen are metal sheets punched or drilled round or elongated. Conventional sheet sizes: 710X1420 mm.
Stamped (punch) sieves are characterized by the size of the holes and the number of them in the area of the sheet area 1 m2.
Stamped sieve holes have the following diameters (in mm): 1,4; 1,5; 2; 2,2; 2,5; 2,8; 3; 3,2; 3,3; 3,4; 3,5; 3,6; 3,7; 3,8; 4; 4,2; 5; 5,5; 6; 6,5; 7; 7,5; 8; 9; 10; 13; 14; 16.
Screens made of silk fabric. Silk fabrics for screens are divided into lightweight and weighted. The number of lightweight sieves is determined by the number of cells per 1 rm. see Weighted sieve number is determined by the number of cells per 10 rm. cm.
According to GOST 4403-56 produced silk cloth sieve the following numbers: lightweight xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx xnumx 7; weighted - 9, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 32, 35,
180, 190, 200, 210, 230, 240, 250, 260, 280 and 380. Fabric width with hem for. All 97 numbers are cm, except 380. The fabric number is determined by counting the number of cells on 1 cm in length and width through a weaving eye (magnifier), which has a counting hole in 1 cm2.
Branch of metallic impurities
For release from metal ferromagnetic impurities in the form of metal dust, scale, small particles from equipment, as well as accidentally dropped metal objects, bulk materials are passed through magnetic traps during preparation for production.
Magnetic barriers must be installed in the following places:
- in a current of granulated sugar before micromills or disintegrators;
- before loading the sugar in the dissolution apparatus;
- in a stream of flour before loading kneaders;
- salt stream to Salt dissolver;
- in a stream of the cocoa beans, nuts, oilseeds, after preliminary treatment and sorting.
Separate permanent magnets, permanent magnet magnet apparatuses and electromagnetic separators can be installed as magnetic catchers.
Magnetic steel, from which permanent magnets are usually prepared as horseshoes, has the following dimensions (in mm) in accordance with GOST 6862-54:
round (diameter) - 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 36, 40, 45, 48, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX
square (side of the square) - 10 and 20;
strip (width X thickness) - 6X18, 6X22, 6X25, 8X12, 8X16, 8X20, 8X25, 10X16, 10X18, 10H'20, 10X40, 12X30, 12X35, 12X40, 12X48, 12X50, 14X35, 16X30, 16X40, 20X35, 20X40 , 25X35.
Permanent magnets according to GOST 4402-48 made of special alloys can be used as magnetic catchers.
Magnetic steel and alloys after heat treatment are characterized by a certain residual magnetic induction (in gauss) and coercive force (in oersteds) given in table. 2.
2 Table. Magnetic induction and the coercive force of the magnetic steel and alloys
|Brand of magnetic steel or alloy||Residual induction in gauss||Coercive force in oersteds||Brand Magnetic Alloy for Cast Magnets||The residual magnetic flux density in gauss||Coercive force in oersteds|
The coercive force is the magnitude of the magnetic voltage that must be applied to destroy the residual magnetism and demagnetize the metal.
The higher the residual magnetic induction and coercive force, the higher the quality of the magnetic steel.
The higher the residual induction, especially the lifting force of the permanent magnet.
Knowing the value of the residual magnetic induction in gauss, we can determine the lifting force of the permanent magnet.
The lifting force of the permanent magnet is determined by the formula
where: P is the lifting force of the permanent magnet in kg;
B — residual magnetic induction, in gauss;
F is the cross section of the two poles of the magnet in cm2.
To trap metal-magnetic impurities from bulk food products, permanent magnets in the form of horseshoes with a lifting force of at least 12 kg are used. Magnetic horseshoe must have a lifting force, in 10 — 12 times the value of its weight.
Separate permanent magnets do not always completely remove metal impurities.
For a more complete capture of metal particles, magnetic devices are used. They are a continuous magnetic barrier consisting of several horseshoe-shaped permanent magnets of the same size, installed in the path of bulk materials.
3 Table. Technical characteristics of the magnetic devices
|Rooms magnetic vehicles||The length of the magnetic barriers in mm||Quantity magnetic horseshoe|
Magnetic devices differ in numbers and are characterized by the data given in table. 3.
Rotating electromagnets or electromagnetic separators can be installed as magnetic catchers.
The electromagnetic separator consists of a rotating hollow metal drum, inside of which electromagnets are fixed on a fixed axis.
The drum rotates at a speed of 30 — 40 rpm.
Electromagnets have a much greater lifting force than permanent magnets.
When using electromagnetic separators removal of metal impurities is carried out mechanically.
The disadvantages of electromagnets include the termination of their work in the event of a break in the electrical current network, as well as significant power consumption. ,
Installation and operation of magnetic barriers
- Magnetic barriers should be installed in places with easy access and adequate lighting.
- For inspection and cleaning of the magnets in the gravity of the location of their make-ups with easy to remove covers.
- The design of the magnetic barriers shall be constructed of metal entering the product when cleaning the magnets from Metal impurities.
- A product passed through a magnet must load magnetic barriers across the entire width of the magnetic field and have a layer thickness of no more than 8 — 10 mm.
- The drift of the product is carried out at a minimum angle and with a minimum speed, ensuring uninterrupted transportation of the product.
- Installing the magnetic horseshoes against each other in a gravity flow is not allowed.
- In magnetic devices of several horseshoes latter should be facing each other like poles.
- Washer is made of a diamagnetic material.
- For convenience, the magnetization reversal magnets must be easily removable.
- When electromagnets are installed in the same gravity, stationary permanent magnets are simultaneously installed in case of an open circuit.
- In order to prevent incidents of the product passing through switched off electromagnets, they must be equipped with a signaling device.
- For the supply of current to the electromagnets applied wire SRG appropriate section.
- Heating of electrical wiring should not exceed the norm (30 — 40 °).
- The walls and drift to the bottom of the magnet locations should be made of a diamagnetic material.
Inspection and maintenance of the magnetic barriers. Checking the lifting force of the installed magnets should be carried out regularly, at least once a decade. In the event that the magnets were subjected to accidental shocks or sharp shocks, their lifting force should be determined immediately.
Before starting the workshop after a long stop (more than 10 days) check the load capacity of magnetic horseshoes and vehicles.
The lifting force of the permanent magnets is determined with the help of special devices - magnetometers or with the help of an anchor with a load of a certain weight.
Anchor (hook plate) 22 — 25 mm thick should be used to measure the lifting force of each magnet, and the anchor should be slightly larger than the dimensions of the horseshoe poles in length and width.
When detecting a decrease in the lifting force of the magnets to 8 kg, horseshoes are immediately remagnetized to bring their carrying capacity back to normal, i.e., to 12 kg.
At the enterprises having a source of a direct current, magnetization is made by means of a direct current.
In the absence of a constant current source, a special device is used to magnetize the horseshoes, which can operate on both direct and alternating currents.
For the duration of the long stop of the workshop (more than a day), the magnetic poles should be closed with anchors. Cleaning the magnets from the metal they collect is done every shift.
In each workshop there should be a journal of magnetic facilities, in which each magnetic barrier is taken into account separately indicating the number of magnetic horseshoes in the apparatus. The journal records the results of the verification of the lifting capacity of the magnets by dates, and also records the date of the magnetization reversal.
Weighing and metering of raw materials
Before serving raw material for the preparation of a mixture of prescription it is weighed in the balance, the special dipstick metered or metered in continuously operating dosing.
For weighing raw materials used scales: lever, spring, lever-spring and, depending on the principle of determining the weight - weight and dial. The most important indicators for different weights are their sensitivity and accuracy.
According to the standard scales are classified:
a) at maximum load permitted for the weighing scales to the data;
b) the greatest error, allowable weights for the data at full load.
The maximum error of the scale is expressed in% of the maximum load.
Depending on the class assigned to the scale, the margin of error can be from 0,0002 (for the 1 class) to 2% (for the 13 class).
Scales are also used for special purposes:
- scales for animal oil with a loading capacity of 45 — 60 kg, with a stainless steel platform about 500X500 mm in size \
- dial scales for milk with a maximum load of 250 — 500 kg, representing a two-section tank suspended from a lever mechanism;
- Scales a la carte for grain and oil seed hopper by bucket or lifting device;
- Scales a la carte for flour and sugar (such avtomukomerov).
For weighing dry spirits, spices, vanilla and other types of raw materials consumed in small quantities, laboratory technical scales of the 2 class are used.
Measurement of the dosed raw materials by volume is mainly used for liquid products: water, milk, soda solutions, ammonium, salt, acids, essences, as well as fruit and berry puree and molasses.
For fruit and berry puree and molasses measuring tanks are manufactured in the form of small tanks with internal removable scale and the scale on the gauge glass.
For measuring the volumes of liquids consumed in small quantities (essences, wine), past branding of small containers can be used.
Since the consumption of raw materials in standardized formulations is provided only in weight units, the volume measured by the measuring device or measuring dishes should correspond to the weight of the raw material provided for by the recipe.
If necessary, the continuous dosing of raw materials used special dispensers.
Sugar, syrup and honey
Granulated sugar, which is used for making powdered sugar or used directly in production - without dissolution, must be sifted through sieves with a cell size of not more than 3 mm and passed through magnetic traps to clean metal impurities.
Granulated sugar, which is used to prepare syrups, should be sifted through sieves with an opening size of no more than 5 mm; sugar syrups are filtered through metal sieves with a cell size of no more than 1,5 mm.
(After sifting to remove metallic impurities, sugar is passed through magnetic traps.
If it is necessary to use sugar in the form of powdered sugar (for the production of sugar varieties of cookies, for rolling pills, for chocolate production), the granulated sugar is ground into powder on high-speed hammer micro grinders and disintegrators.
For the production of flour confectionery, chocolate and chocolate semi-finished products, fine powdered sugar is produced, which passes through the silk sieve No. 43.
For rolling pills and panned caramel icing sugar on the fineness manufactures three varieties:
- large, passing through a silk sieve № 23;
- average passing through a silk sieve number 27 or 25 number;
- small passing through a silk sieve № 29.
Table. 4 The technical data Micromills.
4 Table. Technical characteristics Micromills
|Technical data||Type Micromills|
|Dimensions in mm:|
|Machine weight in kg||270||540|
|Productivity in kg / h||100||200|
The disintegrator of the Simferopol plant, which is available in many factories, gives less fine grinding powder than a micromill.
Feature disintegrator Simferopol factory Dimensions in mm:
Power demand in liters. from. 15 Table. 5 shows the fineness of powdered sugar.
5 Table. Fineness of powdered sugar on Micromills and disintegrator
|The particle sizes in microns||Weight content of fractions in ° / 0|
|when grinding on micromills||when grinding on disintegrator Simferopol plant||when grinding on disintegrators old designs|
|From 20 40 up||13,6||30,0||36,33|
|From 40 80 up||1,6||35,0|
Molasses and honey should be filtered through sieves with a cell size of 1,5 mm after preheating to 40 — 50 ° to reduce viscosity.
Molasses is metered by weighing it on the usual commodity weights or otmerivaya in bulk dipstick with conversion to the weight by the specific gravity of molasses.
Flour, starch, yeast and water
For in the production of wheat flour mixed batch consistent quality flour with different parameters on the content and quality of gluten, moisture and color.
The mixing ratio of flour batches when mixed is determined in accordance with the special flour requirements for this type of product.
For mixing different batches of flour, as well as for mixing wheat flour with soybean deodorized flour and
starch used proportional flour mixers, providing simultaneous mixing of two or three batches of flour in different proportions.
Proportional mixer brand HSP-L on TU MPP USSR 1951, № 469 for the preparation of a mixture of flour from two parties has the following characteristics.
|Productivity t / h||from 1,4 to 2,4|
|The number of revolutions of the mixer||screw|
|in a minute||60|
|Power demand in kilowatts||0,5|
|Dimensions in mm:|
|Weight in kg||350|
Possible flour mixture ratio of the two parties: 1: 1; 1: 2; 2: 3; 3: 4.
Proportional mixer for mixing the flour of the three parties has a capacity of up to 2 3,5 t / h.
Variants of the proportions of lots of flour included in the mixture are given in table. 6.
Table 6. The ratio of flour parties
|Number of screws||Variants of flour content of various batches included in the mixture, in ° / o|
|The utilization rate of the flour mixer||100||88,8||83,3||77,7||72,1||66,6||61,1||55,5|
For the final blending pre-measured batches of flour can be used silos mukosmesiteli capacity-1500 and 2500 kg.
From the mixer via different transport devices meal served on screening machines.
In the absence of special mixers for mixing flour, you can use a screening machine of any type, loading flour with alternating sequences or simultaneously on both sides of the machine.
Wheat flour of all grades to remove extraneous mechanical impurities should be sifted through a sieve with a cell size of not more than 2 mm.
For sieving flour used screening machines of the following types:
- machine with flat screens (with reciprocating motion; screens - tarars and vibratory);
- Machine with rotating sieve (Burato);
- machine with fixed screens (Pioneer sifter and brush-screening machine XCM).
The technical characteristics of the screening machines are given in table. 7.
7 Table. Technical characteristics of screening machines
|Indicators||Machines with reciprocating sieve (tarar)||Machines with rotating screens||Machines with VISION||the still|
|tsentri- fugal- state pays||sifter of the Pioneer brand||proseva- Tel brand HSM|
|in t1chas||4||3||3||2,25- 2,5||1, 2-1,5||3|
|Dimensions in mm:|
|Machine weight in kg||-||. 550||500||750||240||520|
Sifted flour is fed into flour bins or silos with capacities from -1,5 to 15 t according to the system consisting of screws and bucket elevators.
From bins through the augers system, the flour is fed into a vat mounted on a platform scale, or onto an automatic flour scale (automukomery).
For release from metal impurities flour is passed through magnetic barriers.
Magnetic catchers can be installed directly in the sifting and transport equipment, at the exit from the sifting machines, in the slopes and chutes after the control sifting, before feeding the flour into the bunker auto weights (automukomery), and in their absence in the flour current before loading it into the kneading machines.
Dosing flour to kneading is carried out on the weight or volume basis.
Libra dozirovschikami flour are the usual trade platform scales, used in small businesses, and weight avtomukomery.
Autocommeters can be stationary, servicing one mixer, and mobile, suspended on a track that runs along the line of hoppers located above the kneading machines.
Volumetric dosing flour principle applies mainly in continuous action in mechanized production lines dough. Volumetric feeders may be belt and drum.
Soybean deodorized flour and starch before putting into production should be sifted through sieves with a cell size of not more than 2 mm and passed through magnetic traps for cleaning of metallic impurities.
Corn starch used in production as a molding material for casting dragee and candy casings is pre-dried to the moisture content 6 — 8% and sifted in dried form through a sieve with an opening size of not more than 2 mm.
Starch, which is in use as a molding material, should be sifted at least once a month to separate the sugar crumbs littering it.
Yeast before use carefully separated from the paper.
(Before preparing the dough for biscuits, the yeast is crushed by hand and ground in water with a temperature of 30 — 35 ° until the lumps completely disappear.
For tempering and dosing of water, water mixing tanks are used, one installed on each kneader or, for prolonged mixing, two kneaders.
Table. 8 technical specifications vodomerno- mixing tanks.
Table 8. Tehnicheskaya feature Counters-smesitelynыh Bachkova
|Capacity in liters||120||200||100|
|The temperature of the mixture in оС||20-80||20-80||20-50|
|The amount of water in liters||20-120||20-200||30-100|