Lovers of confectionery rarely pay attention to their nutritional value - they eat sweets because they like them. Sometimes the type of sweets products referred to as "food for fun."
Various confectioneries, probably more than any other food groups. Increase the value of their attractive appearance and packaging, as well as the possibility to use as a gift. In recent years the confectionery have also become a popular snack (especially tile or bars with different fillings).
Since pastries are tasty, some consume them in large quantities, and therefore these products blamed for obesity, tooth decay and other diseases. As a consequence, sweets receive negative publicity, are often based on specific medical data, but obtained by immoderate consumption of these products.
Obesity occurs when the body absorbs more nutrients than it needs, and it generally refers to food products and not only to the confectionery products. The consumption of chocolate and other confectionery products in different countries (see. 1 chapter) shows that the British, Germans and Swiss eat them 11-12 kg per person per year, but, nevertheless, confectionery constitute only 2-2,5% of the diet the average person (the energy value - about 5%).
Nutritional value and composition of foods
Components of food can be divided into five groups - carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. These compounds are absorbed by the body, contributing to the growth, providing it with energy and giving good health. Furthermore, there are non-digestible components that play a role in the formation of the product volume and facilitate its passage through the human body. In particular, these components include cellulose (dietary fiber, is widely known in recent years), consisting mainly of cellulose.
"Calorie" - a term used to measure the energy produced in the assimilation of food. In some countries, calories are as if they are an ingredient of the food product. The human need for calories depends on the age, sex and physical activity, and considering the calorie consumption of food, the people who care about the number of calories absorbed, should understand this.
The recommended daily calorie intake for men is shown in Table. 24.1.
24.1 Table. The recommended daily calorie intake for men
|Age||Work||to the caloric requirements, cal.|
|18-35, 70 kg weight about||Seated||2700|
|Very active, hard||3600|
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy and are rapidly absorbed by the body. By carbohydrates include sugars (sugar, glucose syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose), starches (wheat, corn, potato, tapioca starch and natural cocoa), various kinds of cellulose, pectin and gums (rubbery substance). Fiber is generally not absorbed by the human body.
Most of confectionery and chocolate products main ingredient - a "sugar." Starches are used to a lesser extent for the type of cookie ingredients and some types of chewing gum and jellies. Cellulose is present in very small amounts in the form of plant fiber in nuts, cocoa, fruit and other such natural ingredients.
Calorie fats by more than 2 times superior and carbohydrates are a major source of fat in the body is formed. Fat serves as an energy reserve of a healthy person, and its presence should not be considered obese.
The confectionery and in particular in chocolate fats are natural sources of cocoa butter from the cocoa, milk fat in milk chocolate and confectionery candy casings such as dairy, vegetable fats in confectionery and in such cases the ingredients like nuts.
Proteins are generally considered to be the most important nutrients, since they are a material for the growth and repair of muscle tissue. Proteins consist of amino acids, and the protein can consist of twenty or more different amino acids. Often do not understand that proteins are of two groups, and for the development of the body a certain proportion of the proteins of the first group, which are contained in products of animal origin, are needed, whereas many vegetable proteins belong to the second group or contain a small number of proteins of the first group. Therefore, to obtain proteins of the required quality, it is necessary to consume more plant food, in which case some less valuable proteins of the second group will turn into fat. Some experts consider this an unnecessary waste of valuable protein products.
The most valuable source of animal protein in confectionery products - milk in the form of dry milk solids in milk chocolate, milk chocolates and fudge (fudge). One of the best plant sources of protein - nuts in the composition of many sweets. Yet another source of protein - wheat flour biscuits or wafers; a number of plant protein contained in the cocoa.
All the more important it becomes source of high quality protein soybean meal. Previously believed that soy flour and soy protein concentrate have an earthy flavor, and poor texture, but resulted in the development of technologies that currently produce soybean meal, concentrate and isolates, allowing to increase the protein content in many food products, including confectionery.
Minerals consisting of inorganic compounds that are required in the human diet, although required in very small quantities. They are used in the formation of bone structures and components are trace amounts of organic tissues and fluids (including blood). In a well-balanced diet contains all the necessary minerals, but often lack the iron and calcium.
Minerals are found in fruits, dry milk residue, cocoa beans and many other natural products, but in highly purified ingredients (for example, in refined sugar, which is practically pure carbohydrate), the content of inorganic constituents is significantly reduced. It should be understood, however, that the use of a pure ingredient such as white (refined) sugar is in no way harmful if enough other ingredients are used to ensure that the necessary micronutrients enter the body. Currently, many foods use unrefined sugar (raw sugar, brown sugar) containing mineral substances.
The presence of vitamins in the diet has been found recently (1912- 1915 gg.), Although it was known that some products, such as fresh fruits and vegetables are required for maintaining good health.
Vitamins - a complex organic chemicals necessary for the viability of the organism regulation, which can not be formed from the above-mentioned types of nutrients.
Pastry can not be attributed to products rich in vitamins, but small amounts are present in the last dairy, fruit, nut and cocoa ingredients.
Since there is currently a tendency to enrich the products with vitamin concentrates, it is desirable that the food industry technologist has at least some idea about this. Although vitamin enrichment of confectionery products, including chocolate, for general sale is not practiced, food beverages are produced with the addition of vitamin concentrates (especially for export to underdeveloped countries). Some grain components are a valuable source of proteins and vitamins. Low-fat wheat sprouts, used to enrich cereal products like muesli, which, in turn, are widely used as a component of chocolate bars .
Immediately after World War II to be sent to Europe, where there was a shortage of products, produced a special "vitamin chocolate". It was usually a dark chocolate with added vitamin concentrate.
enriched product development is best done in conjunction with a company specializing in the production of vitamin concentrates. Such firms have the means of monitoring the efficiency of components and concentrate on each party deliver the appropriate certificates on the chemical composition. They may also provide guidance regarding possible efficiency losses during processing or storage of the enriched product.
The list of vitamins is given in Table. 24.2.
24.2 Table. Vitamins and their basic functions
|Fat-soluble vitamins||Vitamin A, retinol |
Vitamin D, vitamin E kalьciferol, tocopherol
Vitamin K, phylloquinone
|Water-soluble vitamins||Vitamin B1 thiamine |
Vitamin B2, riboflavin
Niacin (Vitamin PP)
Vitamin B9 (Folievaя Chisloth) Vitamin H (biotin)
Vitamin C, ascorbic acid
Vitamin B4And choline
Vitamin A is formed from the preformed retinol and carotenoid noidnyh precursors (precursors), which in the intestinal tract are converted into vitamin A. This vitamin is essential for proper growth, prevention of eye diseases and congenital malformations. Vitamin A is present in significant amounts in fish oil, eggs, butter, milk and liver. The precursor carotene (provitamin A) is found in many fruits and vegetables a yellow color.
The group of vitamin E include several substances, the most important of which - is cholecalciferol (vitamin TS3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin E2). Vitamin formed from animal materials with radiation, and vitamin E2 - the same from plant material. Group E Vitamins are essential for adjustment of calcium in bone tissue - when there is a shortage of rickets. These vitamins are present in eggs, liver and certain species of fish - the body and they are formed in the skin by the action of sunlight.
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Vitamin E is available in several forms and performs several important functions required for normal operation of the blood, muscle, nervous, and reproductive system. In sufficient quantities, it is present in natural whole grains and vegetable oils.
It is currently believed that the Vitamin K - is a group of quinone compounds. This vitamin is necessary for blood clotting and are widely distributed in nature in all green leafy plants, potato, rose hips, and certain types of vegetable oils.
To Distinguish! (Phylloquinone, fitomenadion, phytonadione) contained in the tissues of green plants, K2 (menaquinone), which is formed in foods and in animals as a result of micro-organisms and K3 (menadione).
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin V1 known as a vitamin or antinevrotichesky aneurine. It is effective in the case of nervous disorders and loss of appetite. Vitamin quite widespread
nen naturally in whole grains, in wheat germ, peas and beans, egg yolk, nuts, brewer's yeast in a lesser degree - in various meat products (especially offal). It can be synthesized as thiazole hydrochloride.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
This vitamin is found as mono- and flavin dinucleotide and participates in the oxidation process and respiratory tissue. Riboflavin is widely distributed in foods (meat, fish, milk and eggs). With a lack of vitamin V2 associated mucosal inflammation, certain types of dermatitis, and pruritus.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
As pyridine derivatives, niacin acts as components of two enzymes - nicotinamide and phosphates. It is necessary for cell respiration and for absorption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Lack of this vitamin causes pellagra (dermatitis severe form). Niacin is present in the kidneys and liver of animals, niacin also rich whole grain cereals and yeast.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
This vitamin contains chemical complexes - pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Lack of this vitamin in the body causes various types of dermatitis, skin ulceration and seizures in children. Contained in cereals, milk, vegetables, and various meat products (especially in the liver).
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
This important vitamin is present in the daily use products. Chemically, it is a derivative of p-alanine. His lack of in the body leads to weight loss, insomnia, fatigue, cramps and certain nervous disorders. This vitamin is involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and various fatty acids.
Vitamin H (Biotin)
Biotin is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, as well as in carbohydrate metabolism. His lack of in the body causes dermatitis and decrease in hemoglobin. Although not usual diet food shortages it is usually seen to enrich food products can be synthesized. There are several isomers of biotin, the physiologically active but only d-biotin.
Folic acid (folacin, pteroylglutamic acid) is a derivative of glutamic acid, aminobenzoic acid and pteridine. Lack of folic acid in the body causes anemia during periods of high stress. Present in green vegetables and liver, but is destroyed when heated. Not long ago, a lack of folic acid was found in women during pregnancy, in alcoholics and malnourished members of low-income families.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin V12 is required for cells, especially bone marrow, colon and central nervous system. Lack of this vitamin in the body causes anemia and a violation of the spinal cord. Present in most foods of animal origin. It noted the lack of it in the body of vegetarians who do not consume animal proteins.
Vitamin B4 (Choline, NYeIRIN)
This vitamin is necessary for synthesis of cell membranes. It is part of the egg and soy lecithin, chemically it is a quaternary ammonium compound. The lack of choline in the body leads to a fatty degeneration of the liver and some kidney diseases.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C has several functions, including the regulation of the respiratory cycle and ensuring the strength of the blood vessels. His lack of in the body causes anemia, hemorrhage, swelling of the gums and scurvy. This vitamin is widely present in fresh foods (especially fresh fruit and vegetables), but it can be produced biologically and used for food fortification.
Marking fortified foods
Information about the beneficial effects of vitamins (natural or added to food), is strictly regulated. Usually it indicated daily consumption rate, but in every country should be guided by local regulations on the labeling of fortified foods.
Nutritional value of chocolate and sweets
Table. 24.3 presents data on the nutritional value of some types of chocolate and shokoladsoderzhaschih products. The data in rows 1-8 borrowed from the world-famous reference McCance and Widdowson  [*]And information in rows 9-12 obtained by the author. Data on chocolate and cocoa  indicate a higher fat content compared to current formulations. Chocolate and cocoa may include alkaline salt or additives, and the corresponding data are given in parentheses.
Food businesses regularly receive from hospitals, nutritionists, general practitioners, consumers and various eccentrics, please specify the composition of manufactured products. To be able to quickly respond to such requests, it is useful to gather together relevant information on all the lines produced by the enterprise products.
|g / 100 g||in 100 g||Mg / 100 g|
|4.||Tile, covered with milk chocolate||5,3||18,9||66,5||447||145||249||163||35||1,1||0,3||154||—||295|
|9.||Tiles made of creamy chocolate||2,5||15,5||75,1||438|
|10.||Aerated candy, coated with milk chocolate||5,3||22,9||71,6||501|
|11.||Bar of milk chocolate with cookies and raisins||7,1||28,1||58,3||508|
Calculation of calorie foods
It is often required to calculate the calorie content of any food product. This is a relatively simple task, which is based on the fact that the food consumed by the body burns just as she would have burned in the calorimeter. Given the small loss due to non-digestible part of the product, calorie ingredients are as follows:
carbohydrates 4,0 cal / g
fats 9,0 cal / g
carbohydrates 4,0 cal / g
fats 9,0 cal / g
proteins 4,0 cal / g
Thus, if the composition of the product is known or is determined by analysis, it is possible to calculate calorie.
As an example, consider the natural milk, comprising: a protein - 3,3%, fats - 4,0%, carbohydrates - 5,0% and water - 87,7%. Calculations show that in 100 grams of milk contains:
protein x 3,3 4,0 13,2 cal =
fat 4,0 9,0 x = 36,0 69,2 Total cal cal / g 100
carbohydrates x 5,0 4,0 20,0 cal =
Water is the only carrier and calorie calculation is ignored.
Attributed confections harm
The media widely exaggerated the question of harm caused to human health pastry. In fact, they give only 4% of total calorie intake, and the media just mislead people. Of course, some eat more sweets than the average person, but these same people are consuming and more other food.
An estimated British National Food Survey, the average caloric value of whole food intake is 2900-3300 cal / day when the need for 2100-3000 cal / day. This is what gives the root cause of obesity associated with over-eating, that is, consumption of food containing more calories than the body needs. The excess food is converted into fat reserves.
Excessive carbohydrate intake is considered a major cause of atherosclerosis. There is evidence that the sweet foods and foods high in starch cause atherosclerosis along with peptic ulcer disease and diabetes. According to other sources of data communication of coronary heart disease with the consumption of sugar has not been confirmed.
If we analyze the data of medical research, you may find that many of the conclusions are based on tests in which the dose did not meet normal. Periodically, suspicion falls on other products - saturated fats, meats and even cranberries. The more research is done, the more there is a suspicion of the correctness of our food. This also applies to many kinds of natural products, which are used in the various "healers" insist.
We do not at all try to belittle the importance of medical and dietary research, since they give a lot of positive, but it should be borne in mind that various sensational statements based on facts obtained at a different from normal consumption are only misleading. Since sweets are high in calories and often eaten between meals, they are often called the cause of obesity. You can, however, provide facts confirming that sweets eaten before eating can actually reduce appetite and thereby prevent its excessive consumption. Sweets lead to a rapid increase in blood sugar, which contributes to a decrease in appetite.
The position that the main cause of tooth decay - it's candy, it was widely advertised by physicians and dentists, but recent data when determining the underlying cause based on excessive consumption of sugary foods and soft. Starch is less harmful than sugar. Sweet food, adhering to the teeth and the remaining in the cracks, and serves as a substrate creates anaerobic conditions necessary for the formation of the so-called cariogenic acids. However, the annual consumption of carbohydrates confectionery constitute only 7%, why blame only them?
Statistical data by countries with lower and higher consumption of confectionery products do not reveal differences in dental disease. According to , data that would be considered that a high consumption of sweets (more than 2905 g per week) leads to any more damage to teeth than their small consumption (700 g per week) were not obtained in the survey 140 Scottish children .
Review the causes and ways to prevent damage to the teeth is given in . Recommendations of the author are:
- monitor and reduce the consumption of sweets, ice cream, soft drinks, cakes and cookies, replace them with other tasty food;
- strictly observe good oral hygiene, eating "clean" food - apples, celery and other fruits and vegetables, rinse your mouth regularly and often use a toothbrush;
- add fluorine to water as shown that water promotes fluorination tooth integrity.
Among antikariesogennyh substances most widely known xylitol.
Positive properties of confectionery
Although the dangers of the abuse of sweets repeat continually, harm from them is much less than many other habits. What gives a good use of confectionery products?
First of all, they are nice to have, they have a pleasant taste / flavor. Due to the high sugar content and physical structure they are quickly digested and are a source of sugar into the blood, which means the ability to quickly replenish energy stores.
Confectionery useful as snacks, in many cases, bakery products (eg, chocolate bar) and a cup of coffee or tea are nice intermediate meal.
Chocolate is indispensable for emergency rations (emergency reserve) and as part of the rations to be used for large energy consumption, such as climbers and rescuers.
It is impossible not to note the role of confectionery products such as gift. Get a box of chocolates as a gift is always nice. These holidays like Easter and Christmas, decorate prepodnosimye as gifts wrapped in foil attractive sweets - chocolate easter eggs, bears and Santas.
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- Confectionery in Perspective. The Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery. — London: Alliance, 1982.
- Grenby, Т. H. Some Aspects of Food and Dental Caries // Chem. Ind., 1968.
- Marks, J. A Guide to the Vitamins. — Medical and Technical Publishing Co., Lancaster, England, 1975.
- McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M. The Composition of Foods. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. New Edition (1985) Pave, A. A., Southgate, D. A. T. 1960.
- McHugh, W. D., McEwan, J. D., and Kitchen, A. D. // Br. Med.J. — London, 1964.
- Peterson, M. S., and Johnson, A. H. Encyclopedia of Food Science, Vol. 3, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. 1978. Vitamins Inc., Chicago, 111. 1978-81. U.S.
- Patent No. 4 256 769.
- Karger, S. 1975. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 22 (U.S.A.) с разделами:
- Stare, F. J. (Boston, Mass.). Role of sugar in modern nutrition.
- Grande, F. (Minneapolis, Minn.). Sugar and cardiovascular disease.
- Danowski, T. S., Nolan, S., and Stephan, T. (Pittsburgh, Pa.). Obesity.
- Bierman, E. L. (Seattle, Wash.) and Nelson, R. (Rochester, Minn.). Carbohydrates, diabetes, and blood lipids.
- Finn, S. B. (Birmingham, Ala.) and Glass, R. B. (Boston, Mass.). Sugar and dental decay.
- Danowski, T. S., Nolan, S., and Stephan, T. (Pittsburgh, Pa). Hypoglycemia.
[*] Forthcoming in Russian in 2005, in St. Petersburg publishing profession. " - Note. Ed.