As a molding material used in casting the starch candy. The quality of the molding material determines not only the appearance of candy shells, but also a number of qualitative changes occurring with fondant with its casting and vystoyke.
Starch is not only forms a mold of candy mass, he is also involved in the formation of a crust on the surface of the candy shells. In this case, it is attended by a certain amount of water absorption of the intercrystalline phase lipstick.
Starch, as a molding material for the casting of candy masses, must meet the following requirements: when stamping, give non-crumbling forms with a smooth surface; be easily removed from the surface of the molded candy when cleaning with a brush and do not stick to the surface of the dies, absorb the appropriate amount of moisture from the molded candy cases; not have any impurities, unpleasant smell and taste, not be contaminated by any microorganisms.
For candy shells with a smooth surface is necessary for stamping cells using starch rice or maize, from the smallest grain sizes:
Type of starch grains (in mm)
potato 0,05 — 0,08
Wheat 0,03 — 0,05
maize 0,02 — 0,03
rice 0,005 — 0,01
Surface smoothness stamped cells also depends on the degree of humidity of starch. The drier the starch, the less it sticks to the surface of stamps, the smoother is the surface of cells and, consequently, molded chocolates.
It is recommended to keep the molding material moisture in the range from 5 to 9%. However, starch as a molding material has a significant drawback - easy shedding of stamped cells. EI Zhuravleva cites data on the number of defects as a result of the crumbling of cells stamped in starch. In tab. 15 indicates the number of defective enclosures as a percentage of the total number of cast casings.
|Number of samples||1||2||3||4||Secondary|
Thus, because of the inadequacy of the molding properties of the starch obtained an average 4,5% of marriage.
In practice it has been found that the addition to the starch 0,25%, vegetable oil drastically reduces osypaemost cells and makes them more stable.
On osypaemosti reduction also affects cells in the presence of the molding material from the 3 5% to sugar.
With increasing humidity osypaemost molding material is also reduced.
Experiments EI Zhuravlevoj with maize starch containing 0,25% refined vegetable oil, the following results (Table. 5) was given at a humidity of molding material 7, 12 and 16%.
|Humidity molding material (starch)||Number crumbled cells||Secondary|
|1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10||in the piece.||at%|
When starch humidity 5 27%% flaking cells, with humidity of starch 12% showered only 3% of cells.
However, increasing the moisture in the starch it can not be recommended as a means to reduce osypaemosti cells, since at high humidity starch increases the danger of micro biological contamination it decreases starch ability to absorb moisture from the molded candy mass and, consequently, for slows down the formation of crusts on candy Korpu surface owls, increases the amount of starch adheres to their surface.
Thus, it is possible to recommend the use of molding material to 9% humidity and adding maize starch 0,25% refined vegetable oil with a content of up to 3% sugar.
The influence of various factors on the adhesion of starch When casting candy mass of the starch sticks to the surface of candy shells so firmly that it can not be removed nor obmetaniem brushes or blowing air.
Number of adhering starch depends on the nature of the starch, the temperature and humidity at the time of casting, the cast mass and temperature vystoyki temperature.
According to E. Zhuravleva, the average number (obtained as a result of experiments 10) adhering to the surface of the starch buildings is 0,4%.
Thus, each kilogram of sweets, cast in starch, even after very careful cleaning carries with him at least 4 g starch. NV Stepanova, on the basis of its proven varieties of starch and products containing starch, found that the degree of starch sticking to the surface of the candy shells increases in the following order: maize starch, potato starch, wheat flour milling 30% strength.
With the same moisture content of the forming material (6,5%), maize starch 0,2% adhered to the same surface of the fondant shells, potato starch - 0,26%, and wheat flour 30% - ground grinding - 0,4%.
Effect of starch or the degree of humidity of its adhesion to the surface of hulls starch tabl.17 seen from the data.
|The origin of the starch||Type of candy mass||Starch humidity (in%)||Percentage of starch build-up|
Effect of temperature cast fondant starch from sticking to the surface of the candy shell can be seen from the data in Table. 18.
|The origin of the starch||The percentage moisture content of the starch||Percentage of starch adhering temperature of the cast mass|
|made of corn||6||0,18||0,21|
Increasing the amount of starch adhering to the surface of the housing fondant at higher temperatures due its casting apparently with starch gelatinization point of contact with the starch candy mass.
Somewhat different effect on the adhesion of a higher temperature in the casting liqueur shells (Table. 19).
|The origin of the starch||Percent moisture in the starch||Percentage of starch adhering casting temperature|
|104 ͦ||112 ͦ|
|made of corn||7,3||0,73||0,5|
Liqueur syrup with a high temperature castings contain more dry matter and, therefore, difficult to give a moisture pro tection of its starch.
Due to the smaller humidification starch reduced its gelatinization; This may be due to the starch and less adhesion to the surface of candy casings.
Furthermore, in the casting syrup liquor with a higher temperature there is rapid formation of a thin crust retarding the transition moisture starch syrup.
Thus, it was found that the degree of adhesion to the surface of the starch candy casings also affects starch gelatinization. It follows that the higher the gelatinization temperature of the starch, the lower, at a certain temperature, its adhesion to the surface of the candy shells.
It is necessary that the temperature of the starch in the zone of contact with the surface of candy was not near its gelatinization temperature.
Influence of various factors on vystoyku lipstick The crystalline structure of the candy casings is formed during their aging in starch trays. The average duration of the dough sweets in the starch is 3 — 3,5 hours, because during the specified time the lipstick hardens so that it does not deform at subsequent stages of production.
So long vystoyka buildings chocolates in trays require large production areas, causing clutter space and complicates compliance in their proper sanitary conditions.
LB Soenovskim been clarified optimum process conditions vystoyki fondant corps in starch, the formulation of lipstick and humidity before casting fondant, fondant temperature at the time of casting, the molding temperature of the material and its
Humidity. The cast in starch lipstick comes with a molding material into interaction, consisting of moisture and heat transfer between the lipstick and starch.
Since moisture is usually lower moisture lipstick starch, starch affects the formation of the crust, which is important for the formation of the body in the process of lipstick vystoyki.
Change lipstick hardness cast in starch with varying humidity, is characterized by the data in Table. 20.
|Room experience||Starch humidity (in%)||Minimum breaking force (kg / cm2) across|
|1 hour||2 hours||3 hours|
Thus, the solidification rate of lipstick to a very small extent varies depending on the moisture content of starch, regular connection in this respect are observed.
Entered into heat exchange with the starch fondant lowers its temperature, causing the lipstick starts to develop the process of crystallization.
The greater the temperature difference between lipstick and starch, the faster the crystallization of lipstick.
However, casting fondant too cold starch leads to the formation of thick brown with a firm crystal structure.
Experiments on lipstick vystoke at temperatures 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °, conducted by L. B. Sosnovsky, showed that the optimum, in terms of the speed of vystoyka and the formation of a normal structure of lipstick, is the temperature of starch during casting, equal to 15 ° The same temperature should be maintained in the process of vystoka fondant shells.