Fruits and berries are widely used in the confectionery industry due to their delicate flavor, delicate, pleasant aroma and high nutritional value.
The high nutritional value of fruits and berries is due to the successful combination of many important food components of them, including well-digestible carbohydrates — glucose, fructose and sucrose, and substances that have a pleasant taste and aroma. Vitamins in fruits are very important.
In the sections "Fruits" and "Berries" and "Nuts" reference material and tables of the main chemical composition and physical indicators are given, mainly according to the work of prof. F.V. Tserevitinosa "Chemistry and commodity research of fresh fruits and vegetables" and on the works of the All-Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry Sections do not contain agrobiological information (on yield, growing conditions, etc.) and information on the collection and primary processing of fruits, their packaging and transportation, and their quality indicators by standards.
and berries are often in significant amounts, especially vitamin C, carotene (provitamin A), vitamins of group B, etc. (table. 35 in “Berries”) Mineral substances contained in fruits and berries (calcium, iron, phosphorus, etc.) , have also important food value. Ash fruits and berries have an alkaline reaction. Minerals of fruits and berries also contain trace elements (altogether they contain up to 58 chemical elements), many of them (iodine, copper, manganese, cobalt, fluorine, bromine and others) have a positive value in nutrition.
The pleasant aroma of fruits and berries is due to the presence of essential oils, esters and other compounds. Taste properties depend on sugars, acids, tannins, glucosides (bitter taste) and other components. The coloring matter of fruits and berries include anthocyanins, as well as pigments (chlorophyll, xanthophyll, and others).
Fruits and berries contain compounds that have an important biological and nutritional value, for example, enzymes and phytoncides. These substances as well as vitamins, are little resistant, especially to elevated temperatures. During processing in the confectionery industry, they are usually destroyed to a greater or lesser extent. When processing fruits and berries, it is important that it is better to preserve their biological value.
The calorie content of fruits and berries is on average within 40 — 70 kcal per 100 g of edible substance (strawberry 41, lemon 44, apples 63, cherry 68).
The classification of fruits is based primarily on their structure. There are pome fruits, stone fruits, subtropical and tropical fruits; separately considered berries.
The pome fruits include fleshy fruits from the apple tree subfamily (Pomaceae), Rosaceae family, characterized by the fact that in the heart of the fruit is pyatignezdovaya chamber, which contains seeds.
Apples, pears, quince, mountain ash, wild rose are pome fruit. Consumer properties and value, methods and basic conditions for their use are very different.
Apples are fruits of an apple tree of the Malus genus. Apples - the main type of fruit-bearing raw materials in the confectionery industry. They are processed mainly on semi-finished product - apple puree, which serves as the basis for all confectionery fruit and berry products and semi-finished products. Applesauce gives products a pleasant fruity taste and aroma, which are well combined and in harmony with the various flavors; In many cases, these additions (for example, berry supplies) give the products a characteristic taste and aroma for the variety of products, and apple sauce gives the basic background that is common to all these products.
In addition, the best quality apple puree plays the role of a gelling agent in obtaining a number of products. Apple puree is used for the manufacture of products with a jelly-like structure — marmalade, marshmallow; for caramel fillings (fruit and berry, as well as some liqueur, fondant, honey and others); for cases of various candies, glazed with chocolate and unglazed, for fruit and berry semi-finished products, for decorating cakes, cakes, gingerbread fillings, waffles.
Applesauce is also used for making jam, and apples are used for jam, jam, candied fruits.
The structure of an apple is characterized by the presence in the middle part of the fruit of a seed nest, consisting of five seed chambers with parchment-like walls. It is connected on the one hand with a calyx, on the other - with a stem (stem). Around the seed nest (there is flesh, outside the fruit is covered with skin.
The shape of the apple, its size, appearance, color of the skin and pulp, the consistency of the pulp, its taste and aroma vary depending on the variety of apples, as well as on the growing area and other factors.
By the time of ripening, there are apple varieties: summer, autumn, winter (with a subdivision into early winter and late winter).
The chemical composition is shown in Table apples. 32.
three types of sugars found in apples: glucose, fructose
(usually prevails) and sucrose. Of the organic acids are malic (prevails) and citric; in small quantities - salicylic (0,0024%), boric (0,0004 — 0,0006%).
The trace elements found in the ashes (in mg% by weight of the fetus); iron 0,58 — 0,61; copper - 0,08 — 0,12; zinc - 0,16; arsenic 0,005; 0,047 aluminum. The alkalinity of the ash is 9,5 ml of N acid solution per 1 g of ash.
The aroma of apples is determined by the presence in them of an essential oil, which consists of acetic aldehyde and esters of amyl alcohol with formic, acetic, caproic and caprylic acids.
The nutritional value of apples (especially in relation to their use in the confectionery industry) is due to the high content of sugar in them, the presence of acids, aromatic substances, vitamins, valuable mineral elements and other components and good gelling ability.
The apple varieties that are more valuable for confectionery production can be attributed (from those tested to the present) to the following.
Antonov obıknovennaya - variety, long used in the confectionery industry; very common in the northern and middle lanes. Introduced in the standard assortment as a leading variety in all regions of the northern and middle zone, as well as in the Volga region, in the Ukrainian and Belarusian republics. Characterized by high winter hardiness, yield. The chemical composition and quality of fruits vary somewhat depending on the area of growth; Antonovka of Tula, Kaluga and Moscow regions is considered the best for confectionery production. The new Antonovka, bred at our place at the beginning of the twentieth century, is as suitable for confectionary production as the ordinary Antonovka. Antonovka is six-grams, derived by I. V. Michurin, has large fruit sizes, gives mashed potatoes with a slightly weaker gelling ability.
Antonovka is preferably winter varieties, but in the south it belongs to the autumn varieties.
anis striped gives puree with good gelling ability, with a high content of dry substances. Variety widespread in the Volga region and the middle lane; very hardy and fruitful.
Ştreyfling (or autumn striped) gives puree bright, with good gelling ability. A widespread variety, included in the standard assortment of almost all areas of the middle and central zones of the USSR.
In the middle and northern strip of the USSR, there are other varieties suitable for confectionary production: Flask, Renet gold Kursk, Babushkino, Skrychapel, Borovinka, Good Peasant, Aport, Vargul Voronezh, Kitayka, Zelenka Kharkiv, Zelenka Crimean, Zelenka Kursk, Plodovitka, Korichnoe pineapple, bidek.
Southern varieties, applicable in the confectionery industry are: Reinette Simirenko; Sarah-synaptic Kandil, Dzhirgadzhi, Sarah-Tursh and others.
Many new varieties are of great value for confectionery production, these include the following.
Slav, which gives a well gelling puree with a high solids content. The variety was bred by I. V. Michurin by crossing Antonovka and Reneta pineapple. Introduced into the standard assortment of a number of areas of the middle and northern strip. Winter-hardy, high-yielding variety.
Coulomb-Chinese gives a well-gelling bright mashed potatoes. The variety was bred by I. Michurin from the crossing of a Chinese apple tree with the Rennet of Coulomb. Included in the standard assortment of certain areas. Frost-resistant, productive technical grade (taste of fresh fruit is low).
Pepi shafrannыy gives a gelling puree with a high content of solids, beautiful, bright, orange-red color, which may have a special purpose, as colored (for colored marmalade). One of the best varieties created by I. V. Michurin by crossing the Reneta of Orleans and the Pepin hybrid of English with a Chinese apple tree. It is included in the standard assortment of the Tambov, Voronezh and neighboring regions, as well as the Moscow region (for home gardens). Yield is large, low winter hardiness.
Different varieties of the middle and southern strip can be attributed to the average quality of the varieties of apples for confectionery production, for example, Pepin Lithuanian, Bellefle-Chita, etc.
Wild apple trees (gates) from a number of areas have good gelling ability; mashed potatoes of them can be used for the production of marmalade, with the addition of mashed potatoes from cultivated varieties of apples.
Pears are the fruit of the tree Pirus communis L. Little is used in confectionery production. The puree of them does not have gelling ability, has a slight acidity and a weak aroma; after podvarivaniya with sugar not viscous mass. Pear mashed potatoes used for the manufacture of jam. From pears cook jam, make jam, candied fruits. Pear culture is much less common than apples, and mostly in the southern, partly central regions.
The fruits have a pleasant characteristic aroma, give mashed potatoes with a good gelling ability, which can be used for the preparation of gelatinous confectionery products - marmalade, sweets, marshmallow. Used for the manufacture of jam, jam, candied fruits. The fruits of the Japanese quince have a high acidity and gelling ability, mashed potatoes of them can be added to non-gelling mashed potatoes of different fruits and use this mixture to make marmalade and other gel-like products.
Quince (Cydonia vulgaris Pers) - a tree that grows wildly in the southern regions (Crimea, Transcaucasia, the foothills of the North Caucasus, Moldova). Cultivated in the south. Japanese quince (Cydonia japonica) can grow in the middle and northern strip, bred as an ornamental plant.
Quince fruits are similar to apples in their internal structure. The flesh is hard, so fresh fruits are not consumed in food, they are used for industrial processing.
The quince contains three types of sugars — glucose, fructose (prevails) sucrose. Found malic and citric acid. Contained trace elements — iron (1,01 mg%), copper (0,14 mg%). The aromatic substance, which is mainly found in the skin of the quince, consists of enanthic ethyl and pelargon ethyl ethyl esters.
Rowan represents a significant value for confectionery production. Its fruits give puree with a good gelling ability of candy type, characterized by a characteristic pleasant aroma and bitter taste (in the wild mountain ash). Mashed wild mountain ash is widely used (as an addition in small quantities, for example, one quarter to apple puree) in the manufacture of caramel toppings, pastila (rowan) and other products, the Rowan is used for boiling jam, making candied fruits. Puree of cultural mountain ash (Nevezhinskaya, Michurin varieties) can be used as a gelling base in the manufacture of jelly candies, marmalade (pata), pastila and other products.
Sorbus aucuparia (Sorbus aucuparia) is a tree that grows wild. Rowan Nevezhinskaya cultivated in the middle lane (home - Ivanovo region, Nevezhino village), grows well in the northern regions. Perfectly tolerates the climatic conditions of the middle and northern strip. Michurin rowan varieties: pomegranate, Michurin dessert, Black chokeberry and others; their fruits are of great value for confectionery production. Crimean rowan (Sorbus domestica) is common in
Crimea; fruits do not give a gelling mashed potatoes, but mashed potatoes can be used for caramel fillings.
The chemical composition of mountain ash is given in table. 32. Rowan contains glucose, fructose (prevails) and sucrose (usually less than 1%); sorbose and hexatomic alcohol sorbitol (2,5 — 3%) and sorbic acid were also found. There are malic, citric and tartaric acids. The bitter taste of the fruits of mountain ash is determined by glucoside.
Rosehip can be used in the confectionery industry as a vitamin carrier due to the exceptionally high content of vitamin C in it. Mashed rosehips or powder from its dried pulp are added for vitaminization to marmalade, hulls, drops of caramel, etc .; rosehip powder can be used for the fortification of candy caramel, toffee, chocolate and other confectionery products.
Rosehip (Rosa cinnamomea L., R. canina L. et al.) Grows in the wild almost everywhere.
Fruits globose or oblong, red. Inside there are pubescent seeds, they must be removed during use, since the hairs on them cause irritation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and the digestive tract.
The chemical composition of wild rose is given in table. 32. Rosehip contains predominantly reducing sugars and only a small amount of sucrose. Of the acids found only citric.
Fruits from the family of almond trees (Amygdalaceae) belong to the stone fruit, characterized in that the core of the fruit contains a bone, in the hard shell of which there is a kernel - a seed.
For stone fruit belong apricots, peaches, plums, cherries, cherry, dogwood.
Many of the fruits of this group are of considerable value for confectionery production and are used regularly, but in smaller sizes than pome fruits.
Apricots - fruits of trees Prunus armeniaca L .; are used to prepare the main gelling candy puree type, which is widely used in almost all recipes of jelly candies, marmalade, pata, as well as pastila (marshmallow, etc.) recipes, jelly pellets and fruit and berry semi-finished products for finishing flour confectionery products and in some recipes of caramel toppings, jam, etc. Apricots are also made from jam and jam. Dried apricots — dried apricots, Kajsa, and apricots — are used to make fillings; mashed potatoes retain their gelling properties. Dried apricots (whole or cut) are used to make some oriental products (candy).
The culture of apricots is prevalent mainly in the south (Central Asia, the Caucasus, Crimea, southern Ukraine), but it can be grown (especially new Michurin varieties) in more northern areas, up to the middle band.
In plantings there are many varieties of apricots. In the Central Asian group there are local varieties Babai, Kandak, Isfarak, Mir- sanjali, Khurmai and others. They have a sweet core used in the confectionery industry.
In the Caucasian group, local varieties (going for dry fruits and canned food) - Shindahlan, Bukhara, Shalah, Honobah, etc .; most of them have a sweet core.
In the European group - mainly table and canning varieties - Red-cheeked, Pineapple, Nikitsky, Louise, etc. The core of most varieties is sweet.
For processing on mash, spherical Central Asian varieties with a peel covered with a cannon are suitable, for example, the Samarkand Kandak, as well as Caucasian and European varieties - Pineapple, Red-cheeked, etc.
Apricots have a high nutritional value due to the high content of sugars (mainly sucrose, as well as glucose and fructose), acids (malic, citric and tartaric); the presence of vitamins (high content of carotene), valuable mineral substances (alkalinity of ash 11,9 ml of normal acid per 1 g of ash; there are trace elements - copper 0,37 mg%, zinc 0,04 mg%, etc.).
Peaches are the fruits of Prunus persica L. trees. In the confectionery industry, few are used. Used in small amounts in mashed potatoes; from peaches prepare jam and jam.
Peaches are grown in the south, not spreading as far north as apricots.
Cultural development in the South Caucasus and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, the Crimea, in the southern part of Central Asia.
Plums belong to the genus Prunus, there are few (about 29) species, the greatest practical importance Damsons, (Prunus domestlca L.), as well as cherry plum (Prunus divaricata Led), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), damson (Prunus insitita L.) .
Plums are used in the confectionery industry. Some types and varieties of plums give a well-gelling candy puree type: green leaves, cherry plum (high gelling ability and acidity, puree is especially suitable for blending, recommended by the All-Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry); Hungarians and dark blue plums are beginning to find more and more widespread use (but for the materials of the Udarnitsa factory). Plum puree from various raw materials can be used for the production of caramel fillings and other fruit and berry semi-finished products. Plums are also for jam, jam.
Prunes (dried Hungarian) are used in candy production (prunes in chocolate, etc.), for making Oriental sweets.
Dried cherry plum puree suitable for the manufacture of liquid puree, preserving gelling ability. Cultural plums (Hungarian, greenwood, egg, dark blue, etc.) are bred in the southern and middle belt of the USSR; more thermophilic plums - Hungarian and greengage.
In the wild state, plum is spread (Caucasus, Central Asia, but it can also grow and be bred in the central and northern regions), there is also thorns (Ukraine, Belarus, Crimea, the Caucasus), which are bred in some areas.
Puree of thorns can be used in the confectionery industry, provided blending (due to the high content of tannins has a tart taste).
Plums have a significant nutritional value due to a sufficient content of sugars (glucose, fructose and less sucrose), acids (malic and citric), the presence of vitamins and other nutritionally valuable components.
Cherry is valuable for confectionery production due to its inherent strongly pronounced aroma, which is well preserved in products. Cherry puree and supplies are included in the recipes of many confectionery products. Cherry cooked jam, jam, candied fruits.
Cherry (Cerasus vulgaris L.) from the Rosaceae family of the Cerasus genus is a small tree or shrub in height from 3 to 5. Fruits are a drupe with no groove and scurf, almost with a spherical smooth bone, with grooves; they are attached on a long stalk.
Cultivated varieties of cherries around 270. The most common varieties include: Vladimirskaya (Roditeleva), Lyubskaya, Shubinka, Pink Bottle, Lotovaya, Anadolskaya, Podbelskaya and others.
Soviet breeders brought new fruitful and economically valuable varieties, these include: Fertile Michurina, Yubileinaya (Michurina), Polevka (Michurina), Krasa north (Michurina).
The cherry varieties that are more valuable for confectionery production can be classified as:
- Vladimirskaya (Roditeleva) —as a standard old-fashioned variety, giving products (at large dosages) with high taste qualities;
- Anniversary — on high aromatic properties in products;
- Pink flask - for high aromatic properties in products;
- Fertile Michurin - for high aromatic properties in products.
For medium-quality grades can be assigned: Lubsko, Shubinka, Amorel Kozlovsky.
The main chemical and technological indicators of the quality of cherries for confectionery production (except for agrobiological indicators) are as follows: good taste and aroma; large size; small content of parts going to waste (stalks, pits, etc.); high yield of mashed potatoes; high solids content; sufficiently high acid content; good taste and aroma of the finished confectionery with the addition of puree (or supplies) of fruit; good persistence of fruit flavor in confectionery products, made with the addition of fruit-bearing blanks; good preservation of mashed potatoes and supplies (blanks) of fruits.
These indicators should be taken into account in deriving the most suitable for confectionery manufacture cherry varieties.
Sweet cherry is the fruit of the Cerasus avium tree, is little used in the confectionery industry, as it has a slight acidity and a weak aroma. Used for cooking jam, cooking ducats.
Cherry is spread in the Ukraine, Moldavia, the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Cornel - shrub or tree Cornus mascula L. from the family of cornels; grows in abundance in the Crimea and the Caucasus, cultivated in the gardens of the Crimea, in Central Asia. In the confectionery industry, fruits are used to make caramel toppings and other fruit and berry semi-finished products with a characteristic pleasant aroma. Used for jam and other products.
The nutritional value of cornel depends on the availability of sugars (fructose and glucose), large quantities of acid (mainly malic acid) and other valuable components; tart taste due to the high content of tannins.
Citrus and other subtropical and tropical fruits
This group includes citrus fruits, pomegranates, figs, persimmons, pineapple guava, pineapples, bananas, dates, and others. These fruits are grown mainly in the southern (subtropical) call of the USSR (the Caucasian coast, southern coast of Crimea, southern regions of Central Asia) or grow in the tropical zones of other countries (pineapples, bananas, dates, etc.).
The fruits of this group are used in the confectionery industry in small sizes, however many of them have a certain value for this production, mainly due to the pleasant and strong aroma.
Citrus fruits are of great value for confectionery production, as they contain (in the peel) essential oils, for the most part with a strong pleasant smell. Used for the preparation of aromatic supplies (usually from peel, the outer part of the peel), candied fruit (mainly from the peel), cod, as well as jam, jam, etc.
Citrus fruits are obtained from various types of evergreen trees, almost all of them are from the genus Citrus of the subfamily Pomeranian (Aurantiaceae), the family of rutaceae (Rutaceae). The fruit is a multi-nesting and multi-seeded berry with a thick skin (skin), consists, as it were, of a number of easily split segments, within which there is a juicy flesh and a few seeds. The skin consists of an outer colored layer (flavedo) and an inner white (albedo).
Citrus peel is aromatic due to the content of essential oils. Citrus fruits have different essential oil content: oranges 0,3 — 2,1%, lemons 1,5 — 2,0%, mandarins 0,56 — 2,5%, oranges 1,2 — 2,0%, grapefruits 0,4 — 1,7%.
Many citrus peel, as well as connective tissue - film and pulp - have a bitter taste, especially pronounced in oranges, citrons, grapefruit and others; it depends on glucosides. The orange peel contains 2,03% hesperidin glucoside, grapefruits 7,31% (dry weight) naringin, oranges 3% isohesperidin and up to 10% (in unripe fruits) auranziamarin and hesperidin.
Tangerines are the fruits of the trees of Citrus nobilis L. They are used for jam, jam, sponge, etc. Due to the weaker flavor, they are less valuable for confectionery than lemons, oranges and others.
The culture of tangerines - the most common of citrus - has a higher winter resistance than other citrudovye (lemons, npelsina). There are several varieties and varieties of mandarins, the most common mandarin Georgian, Bessemyanny, with high taste.
Oranges and lemons
Oranges are the fruits of the trees Citrus auranti urn and lemons are the fruits of the trees Citrus limonum R. They have a high value for confectionery production, are used for cooking supplies, cakes, as well as jam, jam.
Lemons and oranges are bred mainly on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. These citrus cultures are second only to mandarins.
In the plantations there are several varieties of oranges: Firstborn, Washington inspired, Best Sukhumi, Local thin-skinned, Kinglet (with red color of flesh), Adjara seedless and also Chinese, Italian and other oranges.
There are three main groups of lemons:
1) acid (these are real lemons);
2) сладкие (Citrus limetta R.);
3) close to the real lemon — ponderosis (large size) and others. The most common types of lemons are: Novogruzinsky, Udarnik (new variety), Kuzner lemon, Lisbon, Villa franca, lemon without thorns, Meyer lemon (hybrid of lemon and orange, has little value for confectionery production).
Three-leaved lemon (Citrus trifoliata L.) - shrub of the genus Poncitrus, wildly growing in Abkhazia and Adjara, is used for rootstock. Fruits are small, not suitable for food (bitter pulp), but can be used in the confectionery industry.
This lemon has a high nutritional and dietary value due to the significant content of vitamins, citric acid, essential oil (in the skin) and other valuable components. The nutritional value of oranges is also great (vitamins, sugar, acid, essential oils, etc.).
Greypfrutы, tsitronы, pomerantsы, kinkanы
Grapefruits (S. decumana L.), citrons (C. medica), oranges (S. bigaradia R.), kinkans (Fortunella margarita S.) and other Fortunella genus (grapefruits are more common). These citrus fruits can be used in the confectionery industry primarily for the manufacture of candied fruits, which are of high quality, especially from citrons, as well as grapefruits, oranges. Such citrus fruits, which have a bitter rind taste, should be kept in preparation of candied fruits (for some time in salt solution (salted). The pulp of citrons, oranges and other citrus hybrids, which have a bitter taste, does not give good products during processing for confectionery production. Grapefruit and kinkan suitable for making jam, jam, brews, etc.
A high value for confectionery production is Lyimekvat (Limequat eustis), which has a subtle and strong flavor. Od is suitable for the preparation of high-quality supplies (by processing the whole fruit).
various other citrus fruits are suitable for the production of candied fruit (hybrids).
Feijoa Sellawiana, an evergreen tree from the myrtle family, should be highly valued in the confectionery industry, as it has a delicate pleasant aroma, reminiscent of strawberries and pineapple. Feijoa supplies are a good semi-finished product for flavoring marmalade and other confectionery products. Feijoa is also suitable for the manufacture of jam, jam. Culture can be grown on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and in the Crimea. Feijoa contains iodine (0,17 — 0,4 mg%).
Japanese persimmon - fruits of the tree Diospyros kaki L .; can be used to make mashed potatoes (for caramel fillings].
Persimmon is cultivated on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Wild persimmon (Diospyros lotus L.) grows in the forests of Transcaucasia, in the Jurassic Mountains of Tajikistan, produces small fruits that are unsuitable for confectionery production (puree can be obtained).
Figs - fruits of the tree Ficus carica L. from the Mogaseae family; can be used for making jam and jam. Dried fruits (wine berries) can go into the production of oriental pastry.
Figs cultivated in the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Crimea.