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A few tips for making pastry in the home

A few general tips

A few tips for making pastry in the homeSpreading the flour in water or milk, never sypte it into a liquid, but on the contrary, gradually pour the liquid into a bowl with the flour and stir.

Do not add products to the foam of egg whites, and vice versa - to introduce foam into products, while carefully stirring the mixture from the top down.
If the dough is badly approached or baked in the oven hot enough, it will become gelatinous. If the indentation made in the test finger, slowly disappears, then it is good to survive. Best of all the dough rises at 25-32 °. Put it on average 30-60 minutes. The average dose of yeast - by up to 20 40 1 g per kg of flour. 
To dough was rising evenly, insert a few tubes of pasta.
If yeast dough rises but the causes may be several: yeast poured very hot milk and killed the yeast dough is stroke or in a cool place. But the second case, you can help by putting the dough in a warm place, or top and bottom resting pads. On a hot oven or boiling water can not put: can stop the fermentation.
Excess fat in the dough product quality deteriorates. The dough becomes heavy, poorly baked through.
Sugar slow fermentation and baking the crust undercooked products quickly, while still wet middle.
Grease dough with egg yolk follows 5 minutes before baking.
To the product was soft, still hot, they should be covered with a napkin or towel.
Before you bake something in the oven, preheat it. The gas oven is heated over 10, 25 elektricheskuyu- of minutes before baking. baking temperature depends on the type of dough product size and shape. There are moderate temperature (130-180 °), secondary (180- 220 °) and high (220-270 °).
The temperature in the oven can be determined and no thermometer: if a pinch of flour thrown into the oven, turn yellow at first, but after 30 seconds darken, then 220-240 ° temperature; if the flour at once char - temperature 270-280 °; if the flour gradually turn yellow - temperature 180-200 °.
The temperature in the oven can still be determined by putting it on the bottom of the muddy sheet of paper. If it slow (approximately 5 minutes) begin to turn yellow - average temperature, if once it becomes brown - high.
Small items recommended to bake at a higher temperature; large and thick - at a lower, but longer, so that the dough is well propeklos.
The cake should oven at moderate temperature. If the cake nedopechen he settles.
If the oven is too hot on one side and the product burns, enclose a piece of tin.
If the product burns from the top and the bottom still raw, cover it with a sheet of clean paper and keep the oven until cooked (at lower temperatures).
To see if the dough is baked, insert a wooden stick or a needle into it. If the dough sticks, continue to bake - if not, the dough is ready.
The willingness of large items is determined by the lower crust; in the finished product is rosy, easily separated from the pan.
To make it easier to remove the cake from the mold, even hot place it immediately on a wet rag.
For icing on the confectionery keeps shine for a long time, should be smeared with icing products put on 5-7 minutes a cool oven, slightly closing the door.
Powdered sugar can be prepared from refined sugar. For this purpose it pounded in a mortar and then sifted through a fine sieve.
Small biscuits better to remove from the baking hot.
Baking soda before adding to the dough must first be diluted in a little water and mix well with flour.
"Powder cookie" is often found in the submitted recipes for the preparation of confectionery products. This mixture consisting of baking soda, citric acid and flour. You can prepare yourself by mixing these products in such proportions: flour - 12 g of baking soda - 5 g of citric acid - 3 of
One pack "Powder cookie" designed to 500 g flour. Before adding to the dough first powder should mix well with the flour in the dry state. Diluted in milk or water, it loses its properties disintegrant.
The main types of test are considered yeast, flaky, biscuit and shortbread. Below we give recipes for these types of dough, so that in the recipes do not dwell on their preparation.

Yeast dough can be prepared in two ways - oparnym and bezoparnym.
About n and p n s y way. Yeast dissolved in warm to 30-35 ° milk or water and add half of the flour required standards. Opara put to ferment in a warm place (25-32 °) on 3-3,5 hours. Readiness is determined by the abundance of sponge bubbles on its surface. When Opara little sit down, was added to the other products, kneaded and again set aside in a warm place for the maximum increase in volume. During this time, do one obminku test.
Bezoparnym method. In this way, the dough is prepared for products with a small amount of oil, sugar, eggs and a dough of a weak consistency - for pancakes, fritters, donuts, etc. Yeast is first diluted in warm milk or water, then gradually add all the necessary products (except fats) and mix for 5-8 minutes until a homogeneous mass of medium consistency is formed. Then add slightly warmed fat or butter, mix it a little more and cover it with a clean cloth, put it in a warm place for fermentation for 3,5-4,5 hours. During fermentation yeast fungi release carbon dioxide, which loosens the dough. To free him from surplus carbon dioxide, make a hitch. In this case, the dough is enriched with air oxygen, which promotes the development of yeast. As a result, the volume of dough and finished products is significantly increased.
Preparing a yeast dough, it should be understood that the fermentation is terminated at a temperature below and above 10 ° 55 °.
proofing time is usually indicated in each recipe, as it is about. Ready products to baking hostess should determine -The since it largely depends on the temperature in the room, flour varieties, yeast quality.
Baking time products from dough depends on the richness, shape and dimensions. Products up to 100 g baked usually within 8-15 minutes at 240-260 °, weight 500-1000 g for 20- 25 minutes at 200-240 °.
Puff pastry. Prepared puff pastry in a cool room at a temperature 15-17 °. This 5-10% flour puffallowed to mix with the oil and 5-10% - for sprinkling during rolling out dough.
In three-quarters of water, relying on prescription, dissolved salt and citric acid (or juice), add the eggs, flour, gradually filling up the remaining water, knead the dough and leave for 30 minutes on the table for the swelling.
Meanwhile, an oil mass is prepared. To do this, remove moisture from the oil, mix it thoroughly with flour 'and form a bar. Then the dough prepared before this is rolled out on a board, sprinkled with flour, in the form of a small rectangle so that the edges are slightly thinner than the middle. An oil bar is placed in the middle and tightly folded in the form of an envelope. Then they roll it out with a thick rolling pin in all directions and fold it four times so that the opposite edges do not converge not in the middle of the layer, but slightly backward in one direction. The dough thus prepared is set for 20 minutes in the cold. Then it is rolled again, folded four times and cooled for at least 30 minutes, after which it is again rolled and folded three times. After 45 minutes, the cooled puff is rolled out for the last time and folded three times.
Biskvitnoe dough. To prepare the biscuit dough using flour, eggs and sugar. It can be prepared in two ways: cold and heated.
The cold method. 3 / 4 entire sugar standards put in carefully separated from egg yolk proteins and triturated until the disappearance of sugar grains and increase in weight per volume 2 times. Separately, a whipped protein foam chilled to increase in volume 4 times. Then, gradually, in small portions, add the remaining whites in 1 / 4 of the sugar. Further, the mashed yolks put 1 / 3 beaten egg whites, flour and mix gently, then add the rest of the protein. All mix well until smooth.
Preparation of biscuit dough heated, hammered eggs in a deep bowl, fill up the sugar and whisk continuously vvbivaya, podotrevayut a water bath to 40-50 °. Then remove from the heat and continue whisking, cooled to 20 °. The volume mass thus should increase in 2-3 Rav. To the cooled mass add flour and kneaded until smooth. Sponge cake prepared with heating, more crumbly.
Biscuit dough baked 25-30 minutes at 200-220 °.
Shortbread dough. Flour mixed with baking soda powder Research Institute for biscuits, sift, collected mound and do in Mr. recess. Butter and sugar pound, gradually add the egg yolks, salt, well kneaded, then add the flour and knead the dough. On floured board roll the rolling pin from its middle to the sides.
The dough is kneaded in a cool place. Bake at 230-250 °.

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