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Blanks fruit and ovochiv.Solinnya, pickling, drying, pickles.

Marinated mushrooms.It is known that during storage of fresh fruits and vegetables, most of them as a result of microorganisms and enzymes perishable. To prevent this, use different methods of conservation. The most common and most affordable ones at home - salting, pickling, drying and pickling and canning using sugar.
SOLІNNYA of I souring
Canning vegetables pickles and pickling is based on the formation of lactic fermentation kyoloty a sugar found in plant tissues under the influence of lactic acid bacteria. The more sugar in vegetables and fruits, the more lactic acid produced during fermentation.
The addition salts not only improves the taste of the finished product, but also reduces the development of bacteria and butyric increases grain-conserving properties of lactic acid.
At low temperatures the acid prevents the development of other types of fermentation, so keep salted and pickled vegetables need a cool room. At temperatures lower 15 ° C, lactic fermentation slows, and at temperatures above 22 ° C, there is a risk of putrid bacteria and butyric providing salting and pickling unpleasant odor and taste and, of course, lead to their deterioration.
Barrels from the salt and pickled products must be soaked for days 10-12, 3-4 times changing the water. After soaking barrel must be checked for leaks and repair if necessary. Before filling vegetables it should pour boiling water, cover with burlap and endure so within 2 hours.
Salt should only vegetables, fruits nd that a small amount is used to prepare various dishes. As during pickling salt used many dishes that they prepared with the addition of pickled vegetables, do not need additional prysolyuvannya.
Kvass often cabbage, cucumbers and beets.
Pickled lemons.
With raw water prepared salt solution of such concentration that floated on the surface of egg (in 750 240 g water g salt) and brine poured this goal, intact benign lemons.
Pickled watermelon.
For pickling are ripe and ripe green and small watermelons. Stem removed, washed watermelons. To speed up the fermentation process, they pierced in places 10-12 sharp wooden pin placed in barrels and pour brine.
To prepare the brine in 10 liters of water are 600-800 grams of salt depending on the size of watermelons. Fermentation at 3 ° C lasts 25-30 days. Losses during fermentation are 6,3% of the weight of fresh watermelon.
Soaked apples.
Apples are sorted and washed with cold water. At the bottom of a well proshparenoyi po¬mytoyi barrel and put a layer of leaves of black currants or cherries, and 3-4 layers of the same size apples (peduncles up), then again a layer of leaves and so on to fill the whole barrel. The top layer of apples and covered with leaves. A barrel of apples put in a cool place and pour the wort or sweet water. Apples covered wooden circle, and on top put a small mass oppression.
Instead currant leaves can use wheat or rye straw, which vystelyayut barrel bottom and sides and cover the top layer of apples.
To prepare the wort, rye flour poured boiling water, salt, mix well, dairt settle and filter. In 10 200 liters of water are g rye flour and salt 50 d.
To make malt wort for every liter of water take 10 250 grams of sugar, salt and g 50 100 malt broth, mix well, allow to settle and filter.
Malt broth is prepared by dissolving in water 1 100 l g malt and prokyp'yatyvshy solution for
10-15 minutes.
To prepare the sweet water for every liter of water take 10 400 600 grams of sugar or honey grams, add 50 g salt, the mixture is boiled and cooled.
The most apples are soaked when used straw pads and malt wort.
Solon cauliflower.
With each separate inflorescences are cut upper thin skin, are in the barrel, pour boiling water and cover with a lid. A minute 30 spread on a sieve or strainer and drain when the water cabbage and dry off, again up in the barrel and pour the brine (water on 750 240 g g salt). When it has cooled, cover with a wooden circle cabbage and put the wick. Before consumption of cabbage soaked in water and boil in plenty of water.

Kvasha cabbage.
Well leavened cabbage - an excellent source of vitamin C for ripening winter varieties are best used biloholovkovoyi cabbage.

Obchyschayut head cabbage, washed and shinkuem with kochanchiki, nadrizavshy last before shredding in many places. Poshatkovanu cabbage mixed with spices. In 10 200 kg of cabbage are grams of salt, cumin and 20 10 g g fennel seeds. To cabbage was delicious, add more 250 shatkovanoyi g carrots, 500 g sliced ​​apple quarters and 3-4 bay leaves.
Cabbage put in a barrel or a neokyslyuvanyy dishes and carefully ram. If this is too much juice stands, his exuberance can be removed. Impose cabbage to the top to juice, which will be allocated in the process of fermentation is not poured out through the crown. On top of boiled cabbage put the canvas, and then well washed and vidparenyy wooden circle that prytyskuyut clean stone.
Bowl cabbage put in a cool room, such as a cellar with temperature 8- 10 ° C for souring. In the early days can be several times the mass prostromyty cabbage clean wooden stick, which will speed up the fermentation process and output of gases outside.
We must ensure that during souring and storing surface was covered with cabbage always juice, otherwise it quickly and zaplisnyaviye zahnyye. If released little juice should pour the cabbage pickle (in 1 20 liter of boiled water grams of salt). With the appearance of mold during storage it should be removed, while the wooden circle, which covered with cabbage and wash each oshparyuvaty and canvas boil.
Pickled cucumbers.
Suitable for pickling healthy, not quite ripe cucumbers (green). They zakvashuyut in barrels from hard wood, in ceramic pot or glass jar,
Cucumbers should be objective. they do not prick and do not cut them all, as it used to do when they want to quickly prepare salted cucumbers.
Designed for zakvashuvannya cucumbers washed, give water to drain and placed in a barrel or other container (not the top). At the bottom, middle and top put spices (dill stalks, strip horseradish, the leaves of oak, cherry or blackberry, garlic, mustard) and pour the brine (to 1 50 liters of water grams of salt) so that it fully cover them. On top put a canvas boiled and then rinsed and Osh-boiling water steamed wooden circle and suppress washed stone. Jar of cucumbers in 2-3 days put in a room with a temperature 18-20 ° C and then transferred to a cellar where the temperature 8-10 ° C.
Cucumbers should always be covered with pickle. Mold formed during storage, periodically remove the wooden circle washed with boiling water and a cloth occasionally boil.
Pickled beets.
Beet kvass matched formed during pickling beets are widely used in the household as a useful and cheap drink or natural acid to prepare various dishes.
Healthy roots table beet soaked for several hours in warm water, then thoroughly wash brush, rinse, obchyschayut and cut thin slices or plates. Prepared beets are placed in a washed and scalded with boiling water, ceramic pots or jars, pour warm boiled water and put in a warm place. To speed up the fermentation, put beets piece of rye bread crust. A 8-7 days off mold that formed on the surface, and the brew is poured into clean bottles and store in a cool dry place.
Beets, of which merged brew again pour warm boiled water that poured through
2 days and used to prepare various dishes.
Pickled peppers and eggplant.
For zakvashuvannya are not wilted fresh green peppers and eggplants choose ripe, black and purple
3 elastic and firm flesh. Remove stem and fruit thoroughly washed, placed in a barrel, translating every 3-4 rows of herbs tarragon and pour the brine (water on 10 700 l g salt). On top lay a wooden circle with a small yoke.
Sweet green pepper salt can with cucumbers.
marinade
Winter pickled fruits and vegetables used as a separate appetizer salads and for cooking and salads.
For marinating are acetic acid, which prevents food spoilage. In combination with various spices and sugar acetic acid marinades gives a nice sweet-sour taste.
Pickled fruits and vegetables in oak or beech barrels or in glass jars. Tara in pickled products must be washed thoroughly, and cooperage addition and proshparyty.
Natural losses during the pickling fruits and vegetables is about 10% of initial weight. Pickled vegetables and fruits after pouring the marinade should be stored at room temperature with 0-2 ° C. The process of pickling fruits and vegetables expire 2 months. It is necessary to monitor temperature conditions as high temperature process is accelerated, but the product moldy.
Pouring pickle.
Marinadnyh fill in neokyslyuvanomu prepared dishes - enamel or stainless steel.
In the prepared container placed under the compounding sifted sugar, salt and add the appropriate amount of water, then boil for 10-15 minutes. At the end of boiling add spices and vinegar, then fill heated over 20 min at 90-95 ° C. Fill boil after adding vinegar and spices can not, because in 100 ° C Temperature acetic acid and spice flavors quickly disappear.
The next day 6 fill with spices re-heated to 90-95 ° C and after cooling filtered through a cloth. Spices remaining on the filter uniformly added to portions of fruit and vegetables at the conclusion of their packaging.
Filling should completely cover the product. You need to fill l 10 12 kg of the product, it is marinated.
Marinades are high if for their preparation using grape,
Fruit vinegar or alcohol. For most commonly used pickling vinegar fills strength 3%. For its preparation for every need 10 0,375 l l 80% -s essences and 9,6-9,7 5 liters of water or l 6% vinegar and 5 liters of water.
Adding to pouring sugar and salt, must accordingly reduce the amount of water. The most common fill this structure: to fill 10 6% l -s otset- 5 l, l -4 water, sugar - 800 g salt _ 350 d, horseradish - 20 g leaves of black currant - 20 g green celery and parsley -40 g tarragon - thirty grams cumin - ZO g red peppers - 1 g garlic - 7 hours
You can prepare and fill marinadnyh with other spices, such as: l to fill cinnamon 10 - 7,5 g cloves - 5 g, anise - 4 g allspice -5 g black pepper -4 g bay leaf-10 g
Salt-pickled onions.
Small bulbs obchyschayut, placed in a glass jar and pour 10% solution of salt that every 3 days must replace new (15 time). A 45 3 days onions pour vinegar% -s and through 4 days you can eat.
Pickled cherries.
Cherries are sorted out, removing the overripe, damaged and corrupted and taking the stalk. Then cherries placed in a container and pour the marinade.
* In 10 l marinadnyh fill:% -s' vinegar 6 - 2,7 liters of water - 4,2 l sugar - 3,1 kg, g -15 cinnamon, cloves - 5 g allspice - 6 g, anise - 7 hours
Pickled plums.
For marinating selected ripe plums. Sorting, removing ripe, unripe, damaged and corrupted. Then, removing the stalk, each plum prick in several places that they are not cracked and faster prosyaknulysya marinade. Prepared plum put in a well-washed and proshparenu container and pour the marinade.
* In 10 l marinadnyh fill:% -s' vinegar 6 - 2,6 liters of water - 4,9 l -2,7 kg sugar, cinnamon -13 g g hvozdyka- 5, 6 anise-g sweet pepper - 5 hours
Pickled grapes.
Grapes are sorted, removing damaged, corrupted and unripe berries are washed, put in the prepared container and pour the marinade. In barrels grapes marinated whole clusters, and the bottles - berries.
* In 10 l marinadnyh fill:% -s' vinegar 6 - 2,9 l, l -5,7 water, sugar - to taste, cinnamon - 15 g cloves - 5 g g -6,5 anise, allspice - 6 hours
Marinated black currant.
The berries are sorted out, remove the damaged, corrupt and immature and stem. Prepared currants lowered to 2-3 minutes in boiling water, cool water, then shift to prepared container and pour the marinade.
* In 10 l marinadnyh fill:% -s' vinegar 6 - 2,9 liters of water - 3,8 l sugar - 3,3 kg; spices (optional): cinnamon-16 g cloves - 6 g, anise - 7 g allspice - 7 hours
Marinated pear.
Fruits are exempt from stalks and sepals. If the skin is rough, fruits obchyschayut. Pears 4 cm diameter to leave intact, and the big cut in half lengthwise and remove the core. Prepared fruit dipped in 6-10 minutes (depending on the degree of ripeness, size and pomology varieties) in boiling water to which citric acid is added in an amount 0,1% to the volume of water. After this intense pears cool in the water, put in the prepared container and pour marinadnyh fill.
* In 10 l marinadnyh fill:% -s' vinegar 6 - 2,2 l, l -5,3 water, sugar - 2,5 kg, g -12,5 cinnamon, cloves - 5 g g -5 anise, allspice - 5 hours
Pickles and pickling MUSHROOMS
Salted mushrooms.
For salting using only fresh mushrooms, whole, strong and sound, not wrinkled, not overripe, not wormy, not dirty. Before pickles they should be carefully sorted by size, species and varieties. Salted mushrooms tube (white, dragonflies, chervonoholovtsi, butter and Mokhovikov) and plate are divided into two groups: those containing latex (mushrooms, mushrooms, volnushki, yellow pidhruzdy white pidhruzdy, bilyanky, Nigella, shaft and russule) and those that do not contain milk juice (mushrooms, mushrooms, chanterelles, svynushky). To prevent darkening of mushrooms in the obchyschennya and cutting mushrooms immediately immersed in cold water, dissolving it 10 g of salt and citric acid g 2 1 to l.
There are two ways pickles, cold and hot.
Cold way salted mushrooms, mushrooms, pidhruzdy, bilyanky, volnushki, Nigella and svynushky. These mushrooms other than mushrooms and svynushok, soaked in cold water to remove bitterness. Do it only in a cold room. Mushrooms and soak for pidhruzdy 2-3 days, and volnushki and bilyanky - 4-5 days, changing the water every day.
Soaked mushrooms put in the prepared container, lace thick salt layer each 4-6 cm. Salts are the rate 4-5% of the total weight of mushrooms. When the container is full, mushrooms, pour cooled boiled water (no more than 1 10 liters per kg of mushrooms). On top lay a wooden circle, and on him - a small wick and put the mushrooms in a cool place. they can eat through 1,5 month after salting.
Hot salt method can all tubular mushrooms.
Prepared mushrooms are placed in neokyslyuvanyy ware (enameled or stainless steel), pour water and put on fire, stirring until the boiling. When zakyplyat mushrooms, stir them gently and remove with a slotted spoon foam. Dragonflies, butter and chervonoholovtsi after boiling cook over 10 minutes. Cooked mushrooms back in the sieve and when the water drain, put in the prepared neokyslyuvanu containers (drums, enameled buckets, bins, stainless steel, etc.) and pour the prepared brine. Then put the lid with a slight oppression.
The brine is prepared as follows. The required amount of water bring to a boil, put salt and bay leaf, cooled and filtered through a cloth. In 5 0,6 kg of mushrooms are liters of water, salt and 220 1 g g bay leaf.
Marinated mushrooms.
Marinate could ceps, butter, dragonflies, mushrooms, mushrooms and russule. Each type of pickled mushrooms separately. Most small marinate mushrooms (whole), but can be used for this healthier mushrooms, cut them in half or into four parts.
With mushrooms intended for pickling brushes sand, cut legs and wash thoroughly. In neokyslyuvanu (enameled or stainless steel) pan pour water at the rate of not more than 4 10 liters per kg of mushrooms, add the vinegar and salt to the recipe, put the mushrooms and set on fire. In the process of boiling a little stir and remove foam. Since the boiling cook mushrooms over 20-25 minutes. At the end of cooking add spices. After removing from heat, mushrooms translated into another clean vessels for cooling. Chilled mushrooms shift in barrels or other containers for storage. If they put in the banks, the latter should close parchment paper or cellophane and tie, but in any case not zakatuvaty lids as at home during sterilization can not reach the temperature required for neutralization of harmful microorganisms.
* In 5 kg of mushrooms: water - 0,5 l% -s' vinegar 6 - 150 g salt - 200 g bay leaf - 1h, cinnamon - 0,5 g cloves - 0,5 g chor¬nyy pepper - 0,5 hours
DRYING
At home, vegetables are dried in a special oven or stove. The water contained in vegetables in large quantities during the drying evaporates from them shvydshe than fruit. Because they dry by 2-5 hours depending on the type and size of fruit pieces.
Pre-prepared vegetables warm up, plunging in boiling salted and acidified with citric acid water for destroying enzymes. It is necessary to keep dry vegetables vitamin C. Additionally, dipping vegetables in boiling water helps them Bleaching and accelerates heat treatment.
Dried vegetables at or above a 80 ° C, gradually reducing it to 60-70 ° C. Dried vegetables should be elastic and flexible. Overdry they should not be, because in this case they do not swell during cooking and lose their flavor.
Dried carrots dining.
For drying should take away the red carrot without significant core. Green cut of the head, then sorted by size carrots, obchyschayut, wash and cook in boiling water for 15-25 minutes depending on size. After cooling, cut into strips, laid on a sieve and dried at 65-70 ° C.
Dried white roots.
White roots (parsley, celery, parsnip), intended for drying should be clean, regular shape, with juicy and firm flesh. Drying they need each particular after diligent training.
Obchyschayut roots, cut green head, remove the damaged areas. To save aromatics white roots before drying blanshuyut not. Prepared roots are washed, give water to drain, cut into strips or slices thick 3 mm, laid on a sieve and placed in the oven with a temperature no higher than 60-68 ° C. During dry sieve periodically removed from the cabinet for mixing the product and the alignment layer. If the roots are cut into slices, it can be dried at room temperature in a room or in the shade on the air without falling on yyh direct sunlight.
Prepared slices of roots strung on twine intervals between 0,5 cm and dried, securing a series of strained state.
Dried fruits are very fragile, so before laying the deposit they must endure for hours in the air, so that they become elastic. Keep vegetables should be in a dry cool place, a dark place at a temperature 0-6 ° C.
Dried parsley, celery and fennel.
Greens are fresh to dry, nezahrubilu. After removing the stems and stalks are thick, greens cut into pieces 3 cm in length and laid out on screens. Dried at 40- 50 ° C oven. You can dry herbs in a room or outdoors. To do this, cut prepared green and knit in bunches and hung in the tense splits the distance 7-10 cm apart. When the foliage dries, it is ground to coarse powder and store in a cool place in glass jars, sealed with polyethylene covers.

Dried mushrooms.
For drying suitable mainly tubular mushrooms - white, chervonoholovtsi, dragonflies, butter, Mokhovikov. Top Dried mushrooms - white, they retain their color, taste and smell. Chervonoholovtsi and butter during processing blacken and become unsightly appearance.
Before drying mushrooms carefully obbyrayut needles, sand and miscellaneous debris, and highly contaminated specimens are washed in cold water. Stem, designed for drying, cut beneath the cap and dried separately.
Dry mushrooms can be in the sun, in the oven or stove. In the latter case, to ensure air circulation must leave partially open valve and damper. Mushrooms in the oven dried at a half-open door.
In urban apartments mushrooms can be dried over a gas stove at medium heat, hanging at a height 70-80 cm metal grid, which conclude and mushrooms. You can resort to this method: ceiling kitchen tighten mesh fabric (tulle, gauze) and it spread in a single layer thinly sliced ​​mushrooms. They dry through 4-5 days.
During drying mushrooms in the oven should monitor temperature conditions: drying
required temperature 60-70 ° C and not higher 75 ° C.
White mushrooms before drying should prov'yalyty in the sun, then dried in the shade or in the oven. Drying is considered complete when the mushrooms break easily.
As a result of drying the water content in mushrooms is reduced from up to 91 11-15%. These mushrooms are hygroscopic and rapidly absorb moisture from the air and therefore should save them in a dry place at 7-10 ° C. If the fungus vidsyrily, they should immediately dry.
Keep in mind that fungi absorb odors, so store them with the fragrant products can not. Store dried mushrooms over a year is not recommended, because they lose flavor and taste.
Preparation of fennel.
Dill tightly placed in jars, sprinkling each layer with salt dill, cover jars with parchment paper, carefully tied and placed for storage in a cool place.
Vitamin mixture. Purified parsley root and celery, cauliflower and savoy cabbage, red peppers and green peppers, carrots, kohlrabi, parsley and celery perepuskayut through a meat grinder, salt, stir, tightly placed in jars, cover with parchment paper and tie. One teaspoon of this mixture is quite enough for neposolenoho 4 liter of soup or for making sauces or stews products.
Component-picked in the following proportions: parsley root-1000 g celery root - 250 g cauliflower - 250 g savoy cabbage - 250 g, red peppers pepper - 200 g (5 pcs.), Green pods of pepper - 250 g (5 pcs.), carrots - 250 g kohlrabi - 250 g parsley-100 g green celery - 100 g salt - 500 hours

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