Gingerbread - flour confectionery products of various shapes, mostly round with a convex surface, containing various spices and a significant amount of sugary substances. Gingerbread also includes gingerbreads, which are mostly sandwiched with fruit filling or jam baked semi-finished gingerbread dough, which has a rectangular flat shape.
Depending on the technology of gingerbread dough divided into custard and raw (Table. 24).
Typical recipes of cakes (in kg)
|Wheat flour I grade:
of those involved
|Sugar on glazing||—||23,0||30,0|
Technological scheme of gingerbread
The technological scheme for the production of custard cakes can be presented in the following form (Fig. 94). Cooked sugar-honey, or sugar-curing, or sugar-cation-honey syrup is loaded at a certain temperature into the kneading machine 7. From the 5 bunker, the flour weighed on 6 autoweights is fed at the working kneader.
Mixing of raw materials is carried out to obtain a homogeneous brewed mass. After that, the tea leaves are cooled in a kneader, passing tap water through the water jacket on the working stroke of the kneader. In the absence of a water jacket in the kneader, the welding is performed on baking sheets or in capsules.
The cooled brew is mixed with the rest of the raw materials provided by the recipe in the same kneader.
Cooked dough is molded on 9 molding machines. The dough is also molded on die-cutters or manually using metal grooves. In this case, the dough is pre-rolled to the required thickness of the layer.
Dough pieces are baked in the 10 conveyor oven. After baking, the gingerbread is pre-cooled in the 11 cabinet, and then through the transfer conveyor 12 is fed to the 13 conveyor for final cooling. Chilled gingerbread is loaded into a rotating 16 machine for glazing and poured over with specially prepared sugar syrup from the 15 tank. After that, the gingerbread cookies are dried in the 17 drying oven and set until the sugar crystallizes on the surface, and then placed in boxes or crates.
The technological scheme of production of raw gingerbread differs from the scheme of production of custard gingerbread in the way of making dough. Instead of brewing flour in syrup, all the raw materials provided for in the recipe are loaded into a kneader in a specific sequence and mixed. In addition, some varieties of raw gingerbread is not glazed.
Preparation and test processing, baking, cooling and finishing products
Raw gingerbread dough contains a significant amount of sugar, limiting the swelling of protein flour. Due to this, the dough becomes loose and at the same time viscous.
The process of making raw dough is as follows.
Raw materials provided by the recipe are loaded into the kneader in the following sequence: sugar or sugar syrup, water, bum, honey, syrup, invert syrup, melange, essence, dry spirits, bicarbonate soda, ammonium carbonate, flour.
All raw materials without flour and chemical disintegrators are mixed for one or two minutes in a kneader with the speed of the blades 12 — 14 per minute. When this occurs, a significant dissolution of sugar and uniform distribution of raw materials. Then, disintegrating agents dissolved in water are added to the kneader, followed by flour. The dough kneading continues 5 — 12 min, depending on the capacity of the kneader and the temperature conditions of the room, and stops when a homogeneous mass of uniformly distributed raw material of binder and unstressed consistency is obtained.
The optimum moisture content of the dough should be within 23,5 — 25,5%. The dough temperature after kneading should not exceed 22 ° С; therefore, the temperature of the raw materials, including water, should be no higher than 20 ° C. Semi-finished products obtained by heating (burning, invert and sugar syrup) should be pre-cooled to 20 ° C.
These technological parameters must be maintained when kneading dough, as the humidity and temperature of the dough affect the properties of the dough and the quality of the gingerbread. At lower humidity, the gingerbread cakes are non-streamlined, while at higher humidity they spread and have a slight rise. At a higher temperature, the dough can "drag on" and in this case, the gingerbread is obtained tightened and non-streamlined form.
For gingerbreads of the type “Tula” and “Vyazemsky”, taking into account the molding conditions, the dough should be prepared more viscous and less sticky. Therefore, the technology of its preparation is somewhat different. First, sugar-honey syrup is prepared by dissolving sugar in hot water and then adding honey to it. Then the syrup is cooled to a temperature of 30 — 35 ° C and kneaded with all the other raw materials.
The duration of the dough for gingerbread type “Tula” 30 — 40 min, and for gingerbread like “Vyazemsky” 4 — 5 min. The humidity of the dough should be 18 — 20%, and the temperature of the dough after kneading 27 — 28 ° C.
By using invert syrup or artificial honey instead of sugar, as well as rye flour along with wheat flour (1: 1 ratio), the quality of raw gingerbread is improved and their shrinkage during long storage is reduced due to the increased hygroscopicity of these types of raw materials. This formulation is used in some countries, in particular in the German Democratic Republic and Austria. Cooking technology
the test to be applied in these countries is slightly different from that used in our country and is as follows.
Artificial honey (invert syrup) is heated in an open cooking vat of approximately 20 minutes to a temperature of 90 — 92 ° C. The heated honey is cooled in a kneader with stirring to a temperature of 30 — 35 ° C, wheat flour and rye flour are mixed to it and mixed 25 min. The resulting dough is stored in a chamber at a temperature of 18 — 20 ° C from 4 to 8 weeks, after which the dough is mixed with the rest of the raw material: 20 min with spices and approximately 30 — 35 min with ammonium carbonate diluted in water, potash, and burned. Moisture test is usually 15-16%.
Experience in the production of gingerbread using this technology at some enterprises in our country confirmed the possibility of obtaining high-quality gingerbread with a longer shelf life, despite the fact that the doughing was not used and the dough was prepared without potash, prohibited by sanitary inspection authorities.
Choux gingerbread dough. Dough preparation is worthy of three phases: a) brewing flour in sugar-honey, sugar-honey-honey or sugar-syrup; b) cooling the welding; c) welding batch with all other types of raw materials.
The technology of cooking tea leaves is as follows. In an open digester, sugar, honey, molasses and water are mixed at a temperature 70 — 75 ° С until sugar is completely dissolved. The resulting syrup is cooled in a kneader to 65 ° С and gradually flour is added at the working course of the kneader blades. The brewed dough is mixed with 10 — 15 minutes to obtain a uniformly mixed dough without lumps and traces of nephritis. 19 brewing humidity — 20%. Studies have shown that the brewing of flour should be carried out at a syrup temperature not lower than 65 ° C, since this will give better quality gingerbread. Syrup with a temperature of 50 ° C is used if there are no conditions for cooling the dough after kneading in a kneader or in chests.
Cooling of the brew after kneading is carried out in chests or baking sheets, where the dough is placed in layers. Each layer of dough is poured with crumbs or smeared with vegetable oil in order not to form a monolithic, mass of dough. Tracking the dough is done in a specially designated room until the dough cools to a temperature of 25 — 27 ° C, which usually takes 10 — 15 days.
Welding can be cooled in a kneader with a double jacket in which tap water is circulated. In this case, in a kneader made of flour brewing syrup welding and subsequent cooling. With this method eliminates the need to have a special room and equipment for the cooling test.
In the practice of enterprises, the shelf life of welding and recently has been calculated for months. At the same time, it was considered * that during the doughing out, the taste qualities of custard gingerbread are improved.
Studies have found that during the dough, biochemical processes occur that are associated with the activity of enzymes, which are mainly made with flour. Thus, there is a slight hydrolysis of proteins by proteolytic enzymes, a slight increase in the amount of invert sugar under the influence of amylolytic enzymes.
The lack of optimal conditions for the life of enzymes, low humidity and high sugar content in brewing are, obviously, the main cause of a slight change in proteins and sugars during the doughing process.
The results of long-term studies have shown that biochemical processes occurring in welding during aging do not have a noticeable effect on the quality of the gingerbread, with the exception of increasing the honey aroma of gingerbread prepared on buckwheat honey. Thus, prolonged drying of the welding is not a justified process. However, it should be borne in mind that cooling the welding is a mandatory process. Attempting to use non-chilled brewing and, therefore, a dough with a high temperature for subsequent processing leads to a marriage.
Kneading dough is kneaded in a drum or universal kneader, where chilled brewing and all other raw materials provided by the recipe are loaded, and lastly chemical disintegrating agents dissolved in water.
If the brew is cooled directly in the kneader, then when the temperature of the 23 — 30 ° C is added, all the other raw materials are added in the sequence indicated above, and the mixture is kneaded.
The duration of the dough kneading from the moment all 30 raw materials are loaded during the rotation of the kneader blades at a speed of 18 — 20 rpm and 60 min — at a speed of 12 — 14 rpm.
The finished dough must have a temperature in the range of 29 — 30 ° С and humidity 20 — 22%.
The dough kneading time is limited by the need to get a creamy consistency dough, which has a beneficial effect on the dough forming process and contributes to obtaining good quality products.
Gingerbread, obtained from dough with a higher temperature or lower humidity, have a non-flowing form, and with a higher humidity - a blurred form.
Along with dough kneading in batch kneaders, a technological scheme for preparing gingerbread choux pastry in continuously operating kneading machines has been developed.
The kneading of dough according to this scheme is carried out by brewing flour in the emulsion and then mixing it with other types of raw materials in continuous kneading machines, similar to the machines used for continuous kneading of durable dough. In the first section, flour is welded in an emulsion, and in the second section, the dough is kneaded and cooled.
The emulsion is made from all types of raw materials provided by the formulation, with the exception of flour, dry spirits (spices) and ammonium carbonate.
The emulsion is prepared at a temperature not lower than 65 ° C. The presence of ammonium carbonate in an emulsion with such a temperature leads to its partial decomposition and rapid foaming of the emulsion. Therefore, it is impractical to introduce ammonium carbonate into the emulsion, and it should be dosed in dissolved form into a kneading machine while kneading the dough.
Heating the sugar-honey syrup with dry perfume to 65 ° C leads to the loss of the aroma characteristic of the syrup and the deterioration of its taste as a result of dry perfume passing into the solution of extractive substances. In addition, dry perfumes impair the stability of the emulsion. Consequently, dry perfumes should be dosed with a separate apparatus into the kneader while kneading dough.
In the absence of natural emulsifiers (melange) in the formulation, food phosphatides should be used to obtain a stable emulsion.
The raw materials are mixed and sugar is dissolved in a horizontal cylindrical mixer with the number of revolutions of the stirrer 70 — 120 per minute and with a water jacket, due to which it is possible to maintain the temperature of the emulsion around 65 ° C.
To use the disk churning emulsion emulsatorom type EO.
The dough is kneaded at about 30 ° С for 30 minutes. The optimum moisture content of the custard gingerbread dough is within 20,5 — 22,5%.
Molding. Until recently, the molding of gingerbread dough was made on heavy-duty percussion dies, that is, on the same machines that were used to form sugar dough. In this case, the dough pieces after kneading were first rolled and turned into a dough tape, from which the dough blanks were cut from the punching mechanism.
This method of molding can not be considered rational, as the stampers have a complex structure, large dimensions and require skilled care. In addition, when rolling gingerbread dough, an abundant subsurface of flour is necessary, which causes loss of raw materials and creates abnormal sanitary and hygienic working conditions of the enterprise.
Gingerbread dough is predominantly molded on FPL machines, which are structurally slightly different from FAK type machines (see fig. 92). The dough from the funnel is captured by two grooved rolls, rotating towards each other, and is forced through the templates with a cutout of a diverse contour. Squeezed dough of certain outlines is cut off with thin steel wire and laid in even rows on the stencils or on the steel strips of the oven.
Gingerbread dough is also molded by hand using various devices, most often metal grooves or wooden carved forms.
Forming dough for gingerbreads and loaves is that the dough is rolled, which in length and width should correspond to the size of the iron sheet, and for loaves the layer is also cut into rectangular pieces.
Bakery products. Baking gingerbread is made most often in tunnel gas ovens of continuous action with conveyor bogs. Along with this, in small and medium-sized enterprises, furnaces with a stationary and a sliding hearth are used.
Gingerbread bake at variable temperature conditions. The maximum temperature of the baking chamber should not exceed 240 ° С, and for minty gingerbread - not higher than 210 ° С, in order to avoid staining of their surface. Custard and gingerbread, as a rule, is baked at a lower temperature than raw gingerbread. When baking gingerbread does not apply a higher temperature environment also because it can lead to uneven porosity and often shrinkage of gingerbread. The relatively low temperature of the medium of the baking chamber and the considerable thickness of the dough pieces cause longer baking (usually for gingerbread
12 min depending on the type, and for 30 ginger cuts — 40 min.
Cooling gingerbread produce on conveyors, carousels or special shelves until hardening within 5 — 7 min.
Tirage (glazing) Gingerbread and gingerbread produced sugar syrup, pre-cooked by dissolving sugar in water in the ratio 1: 0,4, when heated to a temperature 110 — 114 ° C.
Most varieties of gingerbread and gingerbread are subjected to a circulation of sugar syrup in order to form a glossy marble crust of crystallized sugar on their surface, contributing to the preservation of the freshness of gingerbread for a longer time.
For replicating gingerbread, coating boilers are used, which, when rotated for 1 — 2 min, the surface of the gingerbread is covered with sugar syrup with temperature 85 — 90 ° C.
The circulation of gingerbread can also be carried out in a continuous drum. Chilled gingerbread comes into the horizontal rotating drum with internal spirals, which are covered with sugar syrup, continuously loaded into the drum. When the drum rotates, the gingerbread cookies then move along the inner spiral to the outlet and gradually pour out onto the cassettes. The duration of the reproduction of gingerbread in a continuous way 50 seconds. On cassettes gingerbread laid out with a convex side up.
It is most efficient to dry the cakes at 60 ° C and air speed 4 m / s for 5 min, and then at 20 — 22 ° C for 3 min.
It is also possible to dry the gingerbread for 90 seconds at a temperature of 130 — 150 ° C and subsequent vystoke for 8 — 10 h. This method is less effective, since the process of circulation with the drying process is significantly longer.
The production of gingerbread with fruit filling is practiced, which is put into the dough or into the cut baked gingerbread. Some varieties of small gingerbread stick fruit filling.
Gingerbread and gingerbread are also produced, the surface of which is smeared with egg, sprinkled with sugar, crumb, chopped nuts or almonds, decorated with raisins, candied fruits or kernels of nuts. All these operations are performed with the molded dough before baking.
Gingerbread cookies are packed in boxes, bags and boxes.
In the boxes and boxes gingerbread cookies are stacked in rows on the edge, and the cakes are flat. Packed in packs gingerbread, intended for urban consumption.