HRANENYE BOBOV COCOA
Arriving at the factory cocoa beans should be stored in a bright and well-ventilated place.
If cocoa beans when transporting wet, they avoid the molding and damage must be immediately emptied from the bags scattered on the floor of a bright, dry and well-ventilated location and dried with frequent stirring. And a storage room with a relative humidity up cocoa beans can be stored for long periods without deterioration in quality. When the relative humidity is above M% cocoa beans are subjected to growth of molds.
Storage space should not be attributed to the cocoa bean to the production, as appearing on bean pests in the form of chocolate moth can enter the production area and cause contamination of chocolate semi-finished and finished products.
The chocolate opnova, which infects cocoa beans, looks like a moth in appearance (Figure 3). The most intensive firefly multiplies in the summer and autumn months. In a warm and poorly ventilated room, the chocolate flock multiplies in the winter.
Pa throughout his short life (of up to 7 14 days) moth lays up to 250 testicles. This is - small white calf about 0,3 mm in diameter, barely visible to the naked eye. Granular substance that is sometimes found in the chocolate products affected by insects, is a scum allocated moth larvae chocolate.
Testicles are deposited either on the product (chocolate, cocoa beans, especially in the beans with cracked shell), or both areas in the immediate vicinity of these products (bags, which are stored cocoa beans, boxes of chocolate, the gap in areas where stored chocolate products), so that when the larvae from the eggs is formed, it immediately found itself for food.
The incubation period necessary to hatched larvae from the testicles, in the range from several days to several weeks. This circumstance may be the reason that the box with chocolate while checking the contents at the moment of release from the factory can not be detected any signs of infection were visible, and only after several weeks of storage
This box in a store or on the salary of her suddenly find larvae olievki, barely discernible to the naked eye.
Along with enhanced eating cocoa beans and chocolate there is a strong growth of the larvae; at the time of the full development of their growth reaches 12-13 mm. After 6-10 weeks the larvae reach full maturity and begin to pupate. For this purpose, they are selected blackout corners of buildings, protected from air streams gap in various parts of buildings, interior angles and boxes, and so on. N.
After two to three weeks from the chrysalis the butterfly flies, and all discussed above chocolate moth life cycle resumes. Under favorable temperature and other conditions three cycles of chocolate moth may be repeated for one year. Since each moth may postpone 250 testicles, then one moth can develop around the larvae of about 2503 naprotjazhenii one year.
It was established that during heating the cocoa beans and nuts at a temperature in the continuation 60 ° 10 min. (All forms of chocolate moth (eggs, larvae, pupae, butterflies) are killed. On this basis, to protect the factory warehouses and workshops from being infected borer desirable every suspicious batch of cocoa beans immediately after discharge from the ship to be carefully heat disinfestation and only then take them on factory salaries.
Wooden warehouses for cocoa beans are of little use as a crack in the wooden beams, girders and columns are a popular haven for moth. The most suitable stone building with plastered walls or reinforced with (a minimum number of speakers from the ceiling plane intersecting girders and beams. The floors in warehouses recommended asphalt or tile.
Arriving at the warehouse sacks of beans should be laid on raised somewhat above the level of the floor grating, carload in piles, height of eight or nine sacks.
Tests carried out in the department, it was found that the maximum load that does not cause any damage and destruction of the cocoa beans is 1 kg / sm2
When calculating the necessary space for the storage of cocoa beans will be available in bags, proceed from the norms 0,9- 1,2 g of cocoa beans on 1 m2 warehouse space. This rule recognizes that the bags of beans stacked eight or nine rows of height and between the mills and the stacks on the one hand and between adjacent stacked on the other hand are wide aisles up to one meter.
In cases where the infection was found borer salary, it is necessary to resort to the fumigation of warehouses.
Since the substances used for fumigation, sometimes explosive or toxic, the fumigation of infested warehouse pests must be carried out by special organizations.
To prevent contamination of premises chocolate folding borer should periodically, but at least 1 times a month during the summer and autumn months, and in the winter time-1 2 -3 every month, subject beans analyzed for pests. In addition, it is necessary as often as possible to inspect the bags of cocoa beans and in case of detection of larvae send those bags of beans to disinfestation. The bags that are exempt from cocoa beans should be immediately subjected to disinfestation.
To avoid infection, chocolate production plants moth necessary to provide the following activities:
1. Not satisfied with the salaries of cocoa beans -and other oil-seed production and related them to Mr. and premises.
2. The sorting cocoa beans and other oil-containing nuclei and cleaning them from impurities in the premises at the warehouse or other non-production plants indoors.
3. Remove from the shop liberated from under the cocoa beans and nuts containers as quickly as possible, but no later than the end of the shift.
4. Avoid the shop floor storage stocks of cocoa beans and warehouses for cocoa beans - the container and packaging materials.
5. Perform a thorough cleaning and inspection of premises for sorting, roasting and grinding cocoa beans and in the case of the moth and its larvae pupae detection - remove them with a hard brush.