The emulsifiers in the production of mayonnaise

Mayonnaise is the fine creamy emulsion "oil in water", prepared from refined deodorized vegetable oils with the addition of protein, and spice flavor components.

Mayonnaise is one of the most consumed (almost daily) on food Russians table is used as a seasoning for improving the taste and digestibility of food and as an additive in the preparation of various dishes.
By that products intended for direct consumption as a seasoning, they must meet certain requirements: bacterial purity, quite viscous creamy consistency and the ability to not delaminate during manufacture and storage.
Mayonnaise are versatile products that allow to reduce calorie intake by replacing some of the ingredients in the low-calorie sweeteners such as sugar and so on. D.

Studies have shown a steady increase in production and consumption of foods low energy and high biological value.
A major problem in the production of mayonnaise is replaced in the formulations of egg powder - the main component of the emulsifying and structuring mayonnaise emulsions. Egg powder - a product of high nutritional value, which comprises up to 2% cholesterol, which makes it undesirable for use by patients with atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, as well as elderly people.

Major trends in the creation of mayonnaise emulsions with a balanced ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrates are associated with the following factors:

• reduction of the content of the fat phase in it by increasing the proportion of vegetable oils with balanced fatty acid composition;
• exception to the formulations of mayonnaises and sauces cholesterol-containing materials;
• increase bioavailability by introducing vitamins, phospholipids, dietary fiber;
• prevention of microbiological and oxidative deterioration by introducing antioxidants and preservatives, as well as carrying out pasteurization and vacuuming.

Raw mayonnaise products. Mayonnaise is a multicomponent system, and qualitative and quantitative composition ingredients determines its functions and properties. In addition to vegetable oil and water into the mayonnaise includes emulsifiers, stabilizers, builders, as well as taste, functionality and other food additives, mayonnaise giving a different taste, aroma, nutritional and physiological value and allow you to create a large range of these products.

Fat-based. As a fat base for vegetable oils used mayonnaise products. These include sunflower, soybean, corn, peanut, cottonseed, olive. All vegetable oils for the production of mayonnaise should be refined and deodorized. Selection of the oil depends on the manufacturer, its capabilities. Collection of recipes for typical production rules for the production of mayonnaise type of vegetable oil does not specify, however, requires its full refining.

Emulsifiers. In the production of mayonnaise often uses a combination of emulsifiers to allow low flow rates at their obtain highly resistant emulsion. In the production of mayonnaises as emulsifiers for nutritional use natural surfactants (surfactant). Typically, the natural surfactants are lipid-protein complexes with different composition of both high and low molecular weight emulsifiers. Different combinations of natural emulsifiers can increase the emulsifying effect and reduce their overall consumption.

In our country, as the main emulsifier components, the following species of egg products: egg powder, egg product is a granular, dry egg yolk. The content of egg products in mayonnaise, depending on the formulation ranges from up to 2 6%.

Egg products for the preparation of mayonnaise is used both fresh and canned in various ways: freeze-drying to spray drying, salting. It can be used as tselnoyaichnoe raw materials and manufactured only from the yolks. However, it should be noted that according to the Russian Federation standard is authorized only to use the dried egg products (powder or granular).

From the viewpoint of the chemical composition of the egg products are a complex structure, which is the basis of protein-phospholipid complex, while proteins are macromolecular surfactant phospholipids and - low molecular weight. The protein containing regions of the molecule kovalentnshi (oil-soluble) and ion (water soluble) bonds. Examples are amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine in the protein chain.

The protein and egg yolk protein have different compositions. The protein is composed mainly of proteins which include ovoalbumin, ovokonalbumin, ovoglobulin, lysozyme and OE These proteins are responsible for such functional properties of the protein in the production of mayonnaises as solubility in the aqueous phase, the ability to disperse and bactericidal action (lysozyme). The yolk contains both proteins (vitelin, lipovitelin, livetin, fosfitin et al.), And lipids. The most important are triglycerides (62%) and phospholipids (33%), which include lecithin.

The primary emulsifying agent egg yolk lecithin considered. Yolk consisting emulsifying formulation except impact also affects the flavor and color of the product.

Egg products, which are used as emulsifiers for manufacturers mayonnaises, relatively diverse. This fresh whole eggs, fresh egg yolks, fresh frozen whole eggs and egg yolks, salt, liquid pasteurized egg yolks, and others. The legislation of various countries regulate the mass fraction of the eggs in the product, as well as the dry matter content of egg yolk. For example, in the UK the product must contain not less than 1,35% dry matter (DM) of egg yolk. The calculation are based on the fact that the yolk is 36% egg weight and contains 51% ST.

Typically, the calculated weight fraction of the egg powder in recipes increased to achieve a better effect, and also due to the fact that the processing is a partial protein denaturation. However, this often leads to the "egg" taste of the finished product, so foreign producers try not to use egg yolk and powders. The quality of fresh and frozen egg products strict requirements:

• bacteriological purity, including complete absence of pathogens (salmonella, staphylococci, and others.);

• mass fraction of protein shall comply with the established standards;

• control the mass fraction of the phospholipids content of phosphorus in the yolk (protein it is virtually absent).

Good emulsifier conventionally used in the production of mayonnaise, milk products are dry. From dairy products as emulsifiers used skimmed milk powder, whole milk powder, cream powder, whey, dry cheese, dry milk product (media), whey protein concentrate (WPC), dry buttermilk and other dried milk products.

Proteins interacting with the milk fat emulsified form a complex, which is a good emulsifier.

The main fraction of the milk protein casein is complex (about 80%), whey proteins (12-17%). Whey proteins contain more essential amino acids and in terms of nutrition physiology are more complete, so the whey protein concentrate is often used as a substitute for egg white powder in the low-calorie mayonnaise.

Casein is used in mayonnaise also in the form of sodium caseinate. Are used and so-called kopretsipitaty - coprecipitation products of casein and whey proteins.

When creating low-calorie mayonnaise and dietary varieties as emulsifiers sometimes used vegetable proteins, mainly soy. Soy contains significant quantities of lecithin. Biologically active substances of soy have preventive and curative effects on the human body. They are easily-digestible protein, B vitamins, antioxidant vitamin E, iron, phosphorus, calcium and dietary fiber. Vegetable proteins are produced in the form of a low-fat meal (50% protein), protein concentrate (70-75%) and protein isolate (90-95%).

In order to reduce the mass fraction of egg powder in recipes mayonnaise is currently studying the possibility of replacing it with food surfactants including polyglycerol ester of fatty acids (E475), 60% -s' soft monoglycerides (E471), lactic acid and citric acid monoglycerides (E472 and E472s ). Among the basic compounds of low molecular weight surfactants that can act as stabilizers are phospholipids.

The source of the phospholipids is the olive natural raw materials. In the Russian Federation issued one type of phospholipid products - phosphatide concentrate from vegetable oils. Recently it developed as a drug "Lipofolk" (with about 30% phospholipid content), which is a mixture of lipid components extracted from the follicles of the ovaries of hens.

The State University of Food Production developed synthetic phosphoglyceride - emulsifier Falls, which is a mixture of ammonium salts of phosphatidic acids from triglycerides of higher fatty acids and has a content of at least fosfoglitseridnoy fraction 70%. The emulsifier has a high surface activity, antioxidant properties, the ability to suppress the activity of microorganisms, as well as to improve the digestibility of fat in the intestine.

To achieve a high emulsifying effect in mayonnaise formulations generally combined in various proportions. Thus it is necessary to consider the thermodynamic compatibility of the main classes of proteins patterns of phase equilibria in these systems, the behavior of proteins at pH changes, temperature, ionic strength, the rheological characteristics of the two phase system.

Thus, the manufacturer can quite widely to change the taste and functional characteristics, mayonnaise, their cost price.

Foreign companies offer ready-emulsifying system manufacturers with an optimal composition of the emulsifier. For example, the company "NANM" (Germany) offers a series of emulsifiers with the title "Hamultop»: • based on milk protein products - Hamultop 031, 090, 091,160,164, etc., which are used in the dosage 0,5-1,5%;.

• based on vegetable (soy, cereals, legumes) protein - Hamultop 800, 803, 804, and others.

The company "Stern" offers to use in salad dressings emulsifier Shternpur E, which is isolated and active phospholipid complex isolated from the raw liquid lecithin. Shternpur E is used to emulsify and stabilize the emulsion, prevents the formation of bubbles and CoA lestsentsiyu. Emulsifier replaces mono-, diglycerides and polisorbagy, far superior to whole egg, improves the viscosity. Proposed dosage 0,2-0,5% by weight of the emulsion.

Stabilizers. A very important problem in the production of mayonnaise is the stabilization of the emulsion. For the stability of high-calorie mayonnaise, in some cases, only an emulsifier is sufficient. And to give less stable medium and low-calorie mayonnaise emulsions long-term stability and protect them from stratification (with prolonged storage, with temperature changes, during transportation), stabilizers are added to the formulations. They should increase the viscosity of the dispersion medium, preventing the aggregation and coalescence of oil droplets, ie, they must be hydrophilic by nature.

In the production of mayonnaises as stabilizers hydrocolloids are mainly used. In Russia, used corn starch phosphate grade B, carboxymethyl starch, sodium alginate. Abroad for stabilizing most xanthan mayonnaises used which is biopolysaccharides. Mustard powder is a flavoring, and proteins contained therein and provide emulsification and gelation.

Stabilizers which meet the requirements that they are subject to manufacturers of mayonnaise, should:

• be compatible with other food ingredients in the product;

• To provide the desired consistency, keep a long time, even when cooked, and other consumer and technological properties of the product;

• have a low concentration and variable speed jelly-education;

• be non-toxic and non-allergenic;

• have a low cost and a significant source of raw materials.

Thickeners. The recipes low-calorie mayonnaise (and sometimes srednekaloriynyh containing a large fraction of the mass of water) to increase the stability of the emulsion used zatustiteli-outliner. Basically it starches and their derivatives, which are obtained from various industrial raw materials such as corn, potato, wheat, rice and tapioca. In the production of mayonnaises used as a native (requiring preparation) and modified (soluble in water) starches.

Native starches are well dispersed in water, but do not dissolve. When heated to a temperature of 55-85 ° C, they swell, forming a paste-starch paste. Therefore, in mayonnaise emulsions, as structure-forming agents, such starches are used after heat treatment. Formed from native starches of gluten are not sufficiently stable, prone to syneresis, subject to the influence of varying pH and temperature. To reduce adverse effects, starches are often mixed with stabilizers, which protect them from external factors, for example, high temperature or low pH.

The mayonnaise emulsions are also used modified starches. The process of starch modification consists in structuring and obtaining starch derivatives with different properties.

Nutritional supplements. Dietary supplements - natural or artificial components introduced into the food to impart certain properties.

Flavors used in mayonnaises and dressings include sweetening, add some salt, and acidifying regulating acidity, flavors, flavoring substances and spices.

The primary sweetener in mayonnaise formulation is sugar (sucrose), varieties in the dietary use glucose, fructose, and polyols (xylitol and sorbitol) and other sweeteners.

Table salt in the formulation of mayonnaise is used to improve the flavor and taste to identify other components. Salt has a preservative effect and.

Spices are administered in formulations in the form of ready extracts, essences, which are commercially available, and also in powder form. It is also possible to use essential oils, obtained by extraction of highly volatile solvents - oleoresins.

The powdered herbs are different parts of the dried herb, aromatic and characterized by pronounced taste properties.

The main spice, present in almost all recipes is mustard. Such spices as pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, cardamom, nutmeg, dill, parsley, marjoram, etc. E., Are used to create various specific taste and flavor of mayonnaise and salad dressings.

when added to edible mayonnaise acid (acetic or citric) are both flavors, and preservatives. By lowering the pH of low-calorie emulsions with up to 6,9 4,0-4,7, they prevent the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms. Citric acid is softer and gives an exquisite taste of mayonnaise.

Preservatives in mayonnaise products play a very important role, extending the life of the product safety. Preservatives conventionally divided into proper preservatives and substances having preservative effect in addition to other beneficial properties. The first directly affect the microorganisms, the second - changing the conditions for their growth and reproduction (pH, etc.). In the production of mayonnaises used mainly salts of sorbic and benzoic acids. The amount of preservative, contributed as mayonnaise products is determined according to the following rules:

• preservative effectiveness above in an acidic medium: the higher the acidity of the product, the less is needed preservative;

• mayonnaise reduced calorie with high water content are more susceptible bacterial spoilage, so the number is increased by insertion of preservative 30-40%;

• Add sugar, salt, vinegar and other substances having a preservative effect, reduces the amount of preservative;

• applied in the production of mayonnaise based preservatives sorbic and benzoic acids are thermally stable compounds, but may be partly volatilized with steam.

Functional additives. A new direction in the creation of mayonnaise products is the introduction of additives in the formulation, particularly useful for human health. In accordance with the theory of a healthy diet, the idea of ​​which is now widely put into practice throughout the world; foodstuffs for human consumption must contain functional ingredients that help the human body resist diseases of modern civilization or to facilitate their flow, slow down the aging process, reduce the impact of adverse environmental conditions.

Some of these components are included in the production of mayonnaise recipes, others are being studied. Currently used effectively 7 main types of functional components: fiber, vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fats, antioxidants (which can largely be attributed to food additives), oligosaccharides, and a group comprising minerals, etc. bifidobacteria.

This product homogenization of refined vegetable oils, water, salt, sugar, egg, vinegar, mustard, and other additives. To the mixture does not separate, add an emulsifier (a mixture of egg powder, skimmed milk powder, baking soda and water). It consists of 3,1% protein; 46-66% fat; carbohydrates and minerals.

Mayonnaise is used as a seasoning for meat, fish, vegetable dishes, salads. It gives the product a unique taste and aroma, improves digestibility.

Depending on the application and formulation prepared mayonnaise following types: Table - Provence and milk (fat not less than 67%), Amateur (fat not less than 47%); Spice - Spring (with dill); Pepper, a tomato (Fragrant, Caucasus); flavored gelling additives - sharp (Mustard,

Holiday, Salad, Spark); with sauce (Southern, Ratunda).

Currently, developed recipes with horseradish mayonnaise, mushrooms, lemon, green cheese, paste, sandwich, dessert (apple, pear, Honey, Milk), diabetic, powder.

Mayonnaise should have a creamy consistency. The taste and smell of sweet, oily, taste slightly sour and spicy, without foreign taste and odor of vegetable oil. Mayonnaises containing additives have taste, color and smell of these additives.

Mayonnaise table - Provence has a delicate, buttery, slightly spicy and sour taste with the smell of vinegar and mustard. Color yellowish-cream.

Mayonnaise with spices - Spring with the smell of dill, with cumin - the smell of cumin, with pepper - the smell of pepper, with cardamom - the scent of cardamom. The composition of the main components, it almost does not differ from mayonnaise Provansal. The content of fat in mayonnaise, depending on its kind - from 37 (Mustard and Salad) to 67% (Provencal, dill, with cumin, with pepper, with cardamom, Milk), moisture - 25-27%. Mayonnaise production consists of the following operations : Preparation of refined deodorized oil, preparation of paste (water solution, soluble components), homogenized emulsion preparation, product packaging. To make the emulsion, the mayonnaise paste is mixed, vegetable oil is added at a temperature of 20-25 ° C, and then an aqueous solution of salt and vinegar is added. Emulsification is completed on a homogenizer.

Mayonnaise packaged in glass jars on 200- 330 g with hermetically sealed lids. For the enterprise of public catering packaging available to a larger glass containers. Allowed packing mayonnaise packets from fat- and water-impermeable plastic film.

Terms of realization of mayonnaise depends on the storage temperature. Table Provençale and spices at 3-7 ° C stored 30 days, and at 14-18 ° C - 10 days. Mayonnaise flavored and gelling additives to stored from 20 3 days at the same temperatures.

Mayonnaise (fr mayonnaise.) - Cold sauce prepared from vegetable oils, egg yolk, vinegar and / or lemon juice, mustard, sugar, salt, spices and other sometimes.

History:
The origin of the word mayonnaise in French is unknown. Larousse Gastronomique 1961 of the opinion that the word comes from the old French «moyeu», which, among other things, mean yolk.

There are other versions of his origin, mainly based on the legendary and striking historical events. Here is one:

The word "mayonnaise" is of geographical origin and is associated with the name of the city of Mahon, the capital of the Spanish island of Menorca, which is part of the Balearic Islands. As indicated in one of the French encyclopedic dictionaries, Mahon was conquered by the Duke of Richelieu. In 1757, the British besieged the city. The French have run out of food, except for eggs and olive oil. Of these products, cooks cooked scrambled eggs and omelettes, which are pretty boring for French officers. The Duke of Richelieu ordered his cook to prepare some new dish. The resourceful chef beat eggs with butter and spiced this mixture with salt and spices. The sauce was called "mayonnaise", in honor of the city of Mahon.

At the very Menorca mayonnaise called salsa mahonesa (maonsky sauce).

It is possible that this simple sauce is ancient and quite emerged independently in several places of the Mediterranean - where there is olive oil and eggs.

There is another version of what happened on the mayonnaise sauce ali-oli (garlic, rubbed with olive oil), known since time immemorial,
Mayonnaise industrial production
The original recipe of the mayonnaise is not suitable for long term storage, and therefore the industrial production of the composition has been developed, also called mayonnaise.

Classification:
The Soviet Union has traditionally enjoyed popularity mayonnaise "Provence", is produced in many fat and oil mills. The composition of the mayonnaise is strictly regulated by GOST, no deviations are not allowed. Mayonnaise is made from traditional products: sunflower oil, water, egg powder, milk powder, salt, sugar, mustard powder, vinegar - and had a fat content of 67%. There are opinions that the Soviet product has nothing to do with the classic mayonnaise. [Citation 241 day] But at least he is safe and contains no artificial additives.

In Russian food industry standards, including standards for mayonnaise were significantly liberalized. Modern Standard 30004.1-93 gives greater freedom in the choice of the composition and use of chemical additives. And the manufacturers are in no hurry to follow him even by inventing their own specifications. According to current Russian guests all ready "mayonnaise" according to their fat content are divided into classes:
high calorie (fat mass fraction of 55%; water less than 35%)
srednekaloriynye (fat mass fraction 40-55%; 35-50% of water)
low-calorie (fat mass fraction up to 40%; water over 50%)
Technology:
Mayonnaise is an emulsion of "oil in water" to cook it traditionally used the egg lecithin (egg yolk). Later, he was almost completely supplanted soy lecithin, and other emulsifying agents having an HLB 8 ... 18.

Regulations
• GOST R 50563.2-93 pigments and fillers. Methods for assessing dispersion dispersibility characteristics. Dispersion in a vibrating mill
• GOST 2858-82 egg powder. specifications
• GOST R 53162-2008 Foodstuffs. Determination of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in cereals, nuts and derived products. HPLC Method
• GOST 11035.2-93 Plastics. Determination of bulk density of the molding material which is poured from a specified funnel
• GOST 11035.1-93 Plastics. Determination of bulk density of molding material that is poured from a specified funnel
• GOST R ISO / IEC IFS 11185-7-98 Information technology. Functional standard. Profiles FVT2nn. The base class of virtual terminals. Register of definitions of types of control objects. Part of 7. FVT2110 - input control object
• ISO / TS 10303-1161-2009 Industrial automation systems and integration. Product data representation and exchange data. Part 1161. The application module. Class of use of the product in conjunction
• GOST R 51461-99 Cheese. Method for determination of added citrate emulsifying agents and acidity regulators

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