Baked cake mix determines the group and cakes, and is the basis of their classification and one of the main semi-finished products.
Baked semi-finished products are divided into: biscuit, sand, puff, almond-nut, custard and wafer.
In turn, the quality indicators of these semi-finished products, as well as the correct and effective process management, are determined by the properties of the resulting dough.
The dough for various types of cakes and pastries is divided into: knocked out (biscuit, protein-whipped), shortbread, choux, puff and semi-structured wafer. Among the various semi-finished products used for making cakes and pastries, the highest proportion is biscuit.
Biscuit is a fluffy, finely porous semi-finished product with a soft elastic crumb, which is obtained by energetically knocking down egg melange with sugar, mixing the mass with flour and then baking the resulting dough.
According to its structure, biscuit dough is a highly concentrated dispersion of air in an environment consisting of egg products, sugar, flour, so the biscuit dough can be attributed to foams.
Preparation of the dough. The process of making biscuit dough is mixed and then bringing down the egg products with sugar-sand mixture to increase in Xnumx times. Next, add the flour, previously mixed with starch, and mix no more than 3 c. The short duration of kneading the whipped egg-sugar mass with flour is caused by the need to reduce gluten swelling as much as possible. A longer kneading may result in a tight, long drawn out dough, and the biscuit will be slightly porous and dense.
Biscuit dough is characterized by a large instability of the air phase. Therefore, the finished dough can not be subjected to intense mechanical stress.
For the preparation of sponge dough is also used the method of heating. In this case, the melange with sugar before churning is heated to 40 ° C with stirring in a chopper for 5 — 7 min at a low whisk frequency, and then churn the mass at a frequency of 250 — 300 rpm for 25 — 30 min and then mixed with flour and starch.
At the enterprises of the confectionery and bakery industry, as well as catering, biscuit dough is produced in chucking machines of periodic action.
In machines with vertically arranged working bodies, the whisk performs circular motion inside the pot during operation and simultaneously rotates around its axis, i.e., performs a planetary motion, thereby ensuring energetic churning and good mass saturation with air.
In horizontal knocking machines, the working body is also a whip of various configurations, mounted on the horizontal shaft of the machine. A feature of this machine is the simplicity of the design, and the disadvantage is the lack of complex movement of the sbivanny body, which causes an increase in the duration of obtaining the finished mass.
The density of the sponge dough is in direct proportion to the duration of churning.
The optimum density of the sponge dough should be within 450 — 550 kg / m3. The finished dough should be fluffy, evenly mixed, without lumps. Test moisture 36 — 38%.
At present, in some enterprises, in order to intensify the technological process, a new method of preparing biscuit dough is being used - under pressure, the advantages of which are the reduced duration of mass churning and, consequently, an increase in labor productivity. The required mass density is achieved in a shorter time due to the forced saturation of the mixture with air. For the implementation of this process are used beaters of periodic action brand HVA.
The machine works as follows. Through the top hatch of the machine, melange and sugar are loaded, which are knocked down after the air is supplied from the compressor under pressure. Then flour is added to the mass and the mixture is kneaded without pressure. A special cart is installed under the lower fitting, and the finished biscuit dough under pressure after the secondary air supply is unloaded from the tank. The pressure inside the whisk chamber is maintained around 0,15 MPa, the duration of the mass knocking down of the 10 — 15 min, and mixing with the flour around 15 with.
Meanwhile, the dough prepared under pressure has a higher density (560 — 580 kg / m3).
Biscuit baked from dough prepared with an overpressure is characterized by the presence of larger and unevenly distributed air pores, which is explained by the higher percentage of large air bubbles in the dough.
The demand for cakes and pastries, which has increased in recent years, especially for products based on biscuit semi-finished products, sets the task of maximally intensifying the dough preparation process, which is possible only under conditions of continuous process management.
A new continuous method of cooking biscuit dough, consists of two stages. The first stage of the process involves continuous mixing of melange with sugar, saturating the mixture with air and churning the egg-sugar mass; the second is the kneading of the mass with flour. This method was introduced at the Moscow experimental confectionery and bakery combine "Cheryomushki" in the station for the continuous preparation of sponge cake, which is part of the flow-mechanized line of sponge-cream cakes (fig. 1).
Egg products and flour have a great influence on the quality indicators of sponge cake and baked goods.
Biscuit made from flour with a weak gluten has a compressibility 1,3 times higher and the porosity 6% more compared to the biscuit obtained from flour with an average gluten. Biscuit made from flour with a weak gluten, has the best taste - more thin-walled porosity, soft crumb.
Biscuit made from medium-gluten flour is of lower quality due to the fact that in this case the gluten of flour absorbs a relatively larger amount of water compared to flour with weak gluten, which increases its elasticity, and the biscuit has a more rigid structure.
Fig. 1. Machine-instrumental scheme of the mechanized production line of biscuit-cream cakes:
I _ collection; 2 - dosing pump; 3 - twin shaft lobe homogenizer; 4 - screw vibratory feeder; 5 - plunger dosing pump; 6 - vertical whipping machine; 7 - screw dispenser; 8 - cross cutter; 9 - six-sided knives for longitudinal cutting; 10 - lifting conveyor; 11 - gear forming machine; 12 - oven conveyor belt; 13 - oven; 14 - circular knives; 15 - puller; 16 - scraper; 17 - support; 18 - conveyor system; 19 - cream dispenser; 20 - preparation of cakes; 21 - live rolls; 22 - conveyor; 23, 24 - nozzles removable; 25 - lifting tables
The process of making biscuit dough, as described above, is carried out by introducing air and dispersing it in the system. This action is counteracted by the force of the surface tension of the fluid, which tends to reduce the interface, that is, the total surface of the individual air bubbles that form the foam, to a minimum.
For the formation of the foam structure, it is necessary to weaken the resistance of the surface tension forces of the system, which is achieved by introducing into the mass of surfactants knocked down the mass, which have the ability to significantly lower the surface tension at the interface.
In the production of biscuit dough, these substances make it possible to knead in one phase, i.e., immediately load melange, sugar, flour and, after churning for a few minutes, get ready-made dough - well-knit, possessing enhanced stability.
Moulding dough. The resulting dough liquid consistency is formed into rectangular, square or round shapes, pre-greased or lined with paper. Forms must be filled with dough no more than 3 / 4 board heights, so that the baked semi-finished product does not expose the forms. The dough in the form is quickly loaded into the oven for baking, as it is compacted during the baking, which adversely affects the porosity and density of the sponge cake.
It should be noted that the existing methods of forming a dough are associated with heavy manual labor. Therefore, the most promising is a method of producing biscuit semi-finished product directly on the oven conveyor belt, when the dough is given the appearance of a solid ribbon, which is subsequently cut into separate blanks in the shape of cakes or pastries. This method is easier to mechanize, reduces the loss of dry matter, eliminating the need for cleaning forms and the presence of litter paper. For forming a continuous test tape, VNIIKP developed a gear forming machine (see fig. 1, pos. 11).
Bakery products. Biscuit cake mix is recommended to bake at the temperature of the baking chamber 190 — 220 ° С for 40 — 65 min and at 170 — 175 ° С for 65 — 75 min with the thickness of the semi-finished product not less than 30 mm; dough, spread on sheets and obtained as a ribbon, should be baked for 10 — 15 minutes at a temperature of 240 — 250 ° С.
Planting forms in the oven should be carried out carefully, without inclining the forms in relation to the hearth of the furnace. You can not rearrange the molds with the dough in the first baking period, as otherwise the biscuit may settle.
The moisture content of the finished semi-finished product must be within 22 — 27%. High humidity of the semifinished product, i.e., premature removal from the oven, may result in compaction of the biscuit and the formation of pale crusts. The end of the baking process is determined by the elasticity of the biscuit - after pressing a finger on the surface of the biscuit there should be no recess. A well-baked sponge should have a golden yellow color with a brown tint. The lighter color of the crusts indicates a lack of baking time, as a result of which a raw crumb can form, and a dark brown thickened crust leads to an excessive baking length, such a biscuit is also a marriage.
Baked semi-finished product in the forms is cooled, removed from the forms and subjected to vystoyka at room conditions during 8 h, during which the cooling and reduction of humidity of the semi-finished product occurs, so that it acquires sufficient rigidity, allowing subsequent cutting of biscuit.
Insufficiently cooled biscuit with high humidity is wrinkled when cutting, and when impregnated with flavored sugar syrup it deforms.
“Bush” type biscuit cake is a semi-finished product of round or oval shape, which is usually used
for the preparation of piece cakes and as a base] for the jigging of roses from the cream. For a round sponge cake, the dough has a thicker consistency (due to the increased flour content) and is also fluffy.
Boucher is a round-shaped oval biscuit cake used to make cakes.
A distinctive feature of dough} is that the whites and yolks separately knock.
In a whipping machine, chilled eggs proteins are pre-chased for 20 — 30 min at first, slowly and then at high speed until the amount of proteins increases by 4 — 5 times. Separately, whip egg yolks with granulated sugar at a speed of whisk 250 — 300 rpm for 30 — 40 minutes before the initial volume is increased by 2. The downed mass of yolks and sugar is mixed with flour for 5 — 8 with, and then the downed proteins are added quickly and everything is mixed vigorously. Test moisture 44 — 46%.
The dough is thick consistency molded using the machines used for forming marshmallow, or manually by jigging on sheets of a syringe bag.
Baking is done at a temperature 190 — 210 ° С for 15 — 30 min. The humidity of the finished semi-finished product after cooling 15 — 19%. Semi-finished product is used after vystoyka for 8 h.
Types and causes of marriage biscuit semifinished
- Biscuit dense, heavy, low-porous, with temper. Reasons for marriage: insufficient or excessive length of churning eggs or melange with sugar; long kneading with flour; long-term finding of the finished dough in the pot or forms before baking; the use of flour with a large amount of strong gluten; increased flour dosage; premature removal of biscuit from the oven (the formation of temper).
- Biscuit with lumps of flour. Reasons for marriage: not thoroughly test ProMes ;, use wholemeal flour matted; falling asleep when mixing the whipped mass entire meal at once.
- Not normal biscuit crusts, and so well. Reasons for marriage: premature removal of the biscuit from the oven; low baking temperature (pale upper and lower crust); excessive baking time, increased oven temperature (burnt or dark brown thick crust); the presence of undissolved large crystals, sugar (ribbed surface of sponge cake).
sand cake mix
Sand dough must have considerable plasticity so that the baked semi-finished product is crumbly. This is achieved due to the high content of fat, eggs and sugar in it, the use of flour with a small amount of gluten (28 — 34%) of poor quality, the uniform distribution of components during dough kneading, low humidity and dough temperature.
Test Preparation. To prepare the dough kneading the most widely used machines with 2-shaped blades.
The dough-mixing machine TM-63 with l-shaped blades consists of a bed, a kneading trough with a capacity of 180 l, two 2-shaped kneading organs, a lid, a kneading drive and a drive mechanism for tilting and returning the kneading trough.
When preparing shortbread dough, raw materials, with the exception of flour, are loaded into the kneader and mixed for 20 — 30 minutes. Then add flour and mix • another 1 — 2 minutes to obtain a homogeneous mass. The humidity of the dough should be 18,5 — 19,5%, temperature 19 — 22 ° С. An increase in the duration of the dough kneading, as well as a higher humidity or temperature can lead to a tightening of the dough, a decrease in its plasticity, and a baked semi-finished product with a dense consistency, deformed and with a non-smooth surface. After kneading, the dough is washed.
Shaping the dough. It is the most important technological process, as it determines the appearance of the product and the quality of baked blanks.
For manual molding using a smooth rolling pin, shortbread dough is rolled out from pieces of 3 — 4 kg to a thickness of 3 — 4 mm, cut to size of cake or pastries; for curly cakes, the dough is rolled to a thickness of 6 — 7 mm. After receiving the test tape using a rolling pin, the layer of dough is transferred onto a pre-greased baking sheet. Surplus dough on the edges of the pan cleaned with a knife. Upon receipt of the shaped blank in the form of rings and a crescent, the dough layer is cut with a corresponding metal notch, which is periodically dipped into flour, in order to avoid sticking of the dough to the notch.
The dough for baskets is pre-rolled into a layer of thickness 7 — 8 mm. A layer of dough is applied to metal molds with corrugated walls, which are cut into pieces of dough, and then the bottom and walls of the mold are lined with dough. Dough in molds baked on metal sheets.
The dough for the tubes is rolled up to the thickness of the 3 mm formation, then cut into a strip with a knife into strips approximately the size of 105X65 mm, put them on white tin tubes and the edges of the strips are glued. For pastries with a corrugated surface, the dough is first rolled out with a rolling pin with a smooth surface, and then with a corrugated rolling pin.
For round cakes, the dough, rolled to a thickness of 3 — 4 mm, is formed into round metal grooves, and for square cakes — cut with a knife.
When forming in a mechanized way, a sand dough ribbon with its subsequent cutting into blanks is produced on batch-testing machines with an adjustable gap between the rollers. In this case, the dough is placed on a plywood board and repeatedly passed between the rollers with a gradually decreasing gap to obtain an 4 formation of the required thickness.
The test strip also receive a car brand MRI-60. Dough manually pre-sheeted, fed to the machine table between the upper and lower working rolls, and then directed onto a conveyor belt.
Bakery products. A sandy semi-finished product in the form of a layer is recommended to be baked at the ambient temperature of the baking chamber 200 — 225 ° С for 10 — 15 min (the humidity of the semi-finished product is 5,5 ± 1,5% with a thickness of no more than 8 mm).
At the beginning of the baking process, it is advisable to provide * also the moistening of the baking chamber, since this intensifies the process and improves the quality of the product.
Finishing baked semi-finished products are still in the unused condition. Otherwise, the semi-finished product will harden and become brittle.
Sand cake mix should be light brown in color * and have good porosity and friability.
Types and causes of marriage sand semi-finished products
Semi-finished product is not crumbly, thick ,, hard.
Reasons for marriage: a long batch; the use of a large number of test scraps; the use of flour with more and more gluten; violation of the recipe for sugar and fat.
Prefabricated crude, badly-baked ,, with burnt crusts.
Reasons for rejection: high temperature of the baking chamber; insufficient baking time at normal temperature (raw cake mix).
Reasons for marriage: understated temperature baking chamber; insufficient duration of baking.
A kind of sandy semi-finished product is a sugar semi-finished product used in the manufacture of cakes such as sugar tubes and cylinders with cream.
Sugar cake mix is prepared as follows.
Sugar, milk and melange are loaded into a whipping machine and mixed for 10 — 15 minutes until sugar is completely dissolved. Then, flour and vanilla powder are gradually added to this mass with stirring. Kneading with flour is carried out for 1 — 2 min.
The finished dough should be evenly mixed, without lumps, ointment-like consistency. Humidity test 36 - 38%. The dough is formed by spreading a thin layer (1 — 2 mm) onto a sheet, greased with fat, using a round or oval-shaped stencil. To do this, the stencil is laid on a sheet and in its hole make a spoon of dough, which is then spread with a knife. Next, the stencil is removed from the sheet. The semi-finished product is baked at a temperature 200 — 210 ° С for 4 — 5 min.
Baked semi-finished product in the hot state is removed from the sheet and quickly rolled up into a cone-shaped tube. To obtain cylinders with cream, the semi-finished product is also rolled up in a hot condition using a wooden cylindrical block or a hollow cylinder made of white tin.
After cooling for 10 — 15 minutes, the semi-finished product is freed from blanks, put into a metal rack socket and left to stand on 14 — 16 hours.
Baked cake mix should have a low moisture content (3 ± 1%); due to the high content and low moisture content of sugar, the baked semi-finished product in its cooled form becomes brittle.
Baked cake must have a glossy surface and yellow color. In case of insufficient lubrication of the sheets with oil, bubbles form on the surface of the semi-finished product, and with abundant lubrication of the sheets, the molded dough blurs and the semi-finished product becomes deformed.
In the manufacture of sugar semi-finished products with roasted nuts use the same technology, but with a small addition. When the dough is spread on sheets, the surface of the semi-finished product is sprinkled with crushed nuts through a sieve with cells with a diameter of 4 — 5 mm, then baked.
Almond and walnut semi-finished products
Almond-nut semi-finished products have a rough brown surface with cracks and a sufficiently developed porosity. They have a high content of grated almond or walnut. For different types of products semi-finished products are prepared in different ways.
For almond cakes and almond fruit cakes. Roasted almonds are ground in a three-roll mill, then, in a meat grinder, together with U4, the prescription amount of granulated sugar and 4 / b of the prescription protein amount are ground until a homogeneous mass is obtained. Sugar (U4 prescription amount) is replaced with powdered sugar and mixed together with the mashed sugar-protein-nut mass and the remaining amount of sugar and protein. Then, a quick kneading of the resulting mass with flour (for 0,5 — 1 min) in batching machines of periodic action is carried out.
Sometimes, ammonium carbonate - 0,2 — 0,3% of the load is added to the recipe to improve the rise of baked goods in the production of almond cakes.
The finished dough should be evenly mixed. The moisture content of the finished dough should be 18 — 20%.
Cake dough is deposited with a syringe bag w in the form of round cakes on sheets, pre-oiled and lightly filled with flour or lined with paper. Dough for almond fruit cakes smeared on sheets with a knife.
Before baking, the surface of the dough is moistened with water with a brush or spray. The cake mix is baked at 150 — 160 ° С for 25 — 35 minutes; cake mix is baked at 195 — 200 ° С for 18 — 22 min.
Baked cake mix should be dark brown with small cracks on the surface. The pulp should not be syroeklym. Baking at a higher temperature leads to a crumb failure and the formation of a thick crust with large cracks on the surface.
Baked semi-finished product on sheets of paper is placed on the table with paper up to cool. For easier separation of paper, it is lightly moistened with water, and then the semi-finished product is dried at a temperature of 18 — 20 ° С.
For cake and cake "Ideal". Well-peeled roasted almonds are ground in a three-roll machine with powdered sugar in the 5: 1 ratio, then the resulting mass is mixed with the remaining amount of powdered sugar, softened with butter, essence and flour.
At the same time, chilled protein is churned in the churning machine for 30 — 40 min, and then mixed with the prepared almond mass for 1 — 2 min.
The finished dough should be 35 — 37% moisture and 16 — 18 ° C, evenly mixed and viscous.
Dough making for pastries is made in the form of round or oval pellets 5 — 6 mm thick with jigging bags with a smooth round tube with a diameter of 16 — 18 mm on sheets greased and lightly poured with flour.
Cake dough is smeared with a knife with a thin layer about 2 — 3 mm onto sheets, pre-oiled and filed with flour.
The finished billet cakes are baked for 25 — 30 minutes at a temperature of 150 — 160 ° C, after which they are turned over in a hot condition and placed in the workshop room. Cakes for cakes are baked at a temperature of 160 — 170 ° С for 7 — 8 minutes, after which they are turned over in a hot condition and placed in the workshop room.
Baked seams are cut into parts of the required size with circular knives, removed in heat from the sheets (with a knife) and placed in the workshop, preferably near the furnaces, during 5 — 8 h. During the drying process, the baked layers are dried.
For cake "Krakow". Cake dough is prepared as follows. Sugar, proteins and crushed toasted almonds are loaded into the digester and, while stirring continuously, bring to a boil. Then flour is added to this mass and mixed thoroughly again.
The boiled mass is spread with an even layer of thickness 5 — 6 mm onto a pre-baked sand sheet 5 — 6 mm thick. After cooling and the appearance of a dense crust on the surface of the almond semi-finished product, the layer is cut with a knife into pieces corresponding to the size of the cake. The sliced portions of the semi-finished product are placed on sheets and baked at 150 — 160 ° C for 20 — 25 minutes until a pink-brown color appears. The surface of the cake should be hilly and glossy, in the fracture of large-pore.
For walnut cake "Warsaw". The dough is prepared as follows. Raw nuts and most of the proteins (75%) are thoroughly mixed together with granulated sugar, then triturated twice on a roll or passed through a meat grinder.
Pounded mass is mixed with flour and other proteins, heating it to a temperature 30 — 32 ° С. After cooling, add essence to the mass. The dough in the form of round cakes is deposited on sheets, greased and waited with flour.
Baking is carried out at a temperature 170 — 190 ° С for 30 — 35 min with a mass of cake 60 g and for 15 — 25 min with a mass 30 g. After baking, the semi-finished product is cooled.
Types and causes of marriage almond-nut semi-finished product.
The reason for marriage: a weak consistency test.
The surface of the almond cake dark crust is glossy, badly-baked crumb, there are major cracks.
The reason for marriage: inflated temperature baking.
Cake vague, with big cracks.
Reason for rejection: long-term deposited flat cakes of dough on sheets before baking.
Cake dry and hard at the break.
Cause of marriage: the lowered baking temperature.
Layer cake mix
Puff semi-finished product is prepared from elasto-plastic-viscous puff pastry by kneading flour, melange, salt, acid and water, followed by rolling it into a previously prepared oil. Baked from this dough semi-finished product should have a characteristic layering, which is achieved by using raw materials that meet certain requirements, multiple folding and rolling of the dough and the presence of fat between the dough layers.
Preparation of the dough. For a layered semi-finished product, flour with a high gluten content is used, which contributes to the formation of an elastoplastic dough, which is well resistant to tearing of individual thin dough layers during rolling. The use of tartaric or citric acid increases the swelling and viscosity of the gluten proteins of the flour and thus also contributes to obtaining a dough with optimal properties.
When kneading dough, the following order of loading of raw materials should be followed: water, melange, salt, dissolved in water, acid, flour. The raw materials are mixed for 15 — 20 minutes before the dough has an elastic consistency. The moisture content of the finished dough 41 — 44%.
Kneading dough mainly produced in the universal kneader with two L-shaped blades.
Puff pastry is rolled out after cooling the machine or by hand with a rolling pin.
The most crucial operation in the manufacture of puff semi-finished product is a layer of dough butter. To do this, the oil is pre-cut into small pieces and mixed in a kneader with flour in the ratio 10: 1 until a homogeneous mass. Flour binds moisture contained in the oil, thereby preventing the dough layers from sticking together during repeated rolling. The flour with flour prepared in this way is divided into parts of approximately 6 kg and placed on sheets in the form of cakes, and then placed in a refrigerator for cooling, in which the temperature 5 — 10 ° С is maintained at 30 — 40 min.
The lamination of the dough in the machine is carried out as follows: the dough is cut into pieces with a mass of 10 — 12 kg and passed through rollers with a small gap between them.
Gradually reducing the gap, the dough is rolled in two directions to a thickness of 20 — 25 mm, after the last rolling, the dough tape is placed on another conveyor and a previously prepared piece of butter is placed in the middle of the surface of the dough, the free ends of the dough are wrapped in an envelope, laid on a sheet and placed in the refrigerating chamber for cooling at temperature 5 — 8 ° С. After cooling, the dough in the form of an envelope is placed on the first conveyor of the machine and passed first between the rollers? with a gap of 35 mm, and then another 5 — 7 times with a gradually decreasing gap to the thickness of the test tape 10 mm.
The rolled test tape goes to another conveyor, on which it is folded longitudinally to the middle, then turned 90 °, rolled again to * 10 mm thickness, folded and placed in a refrigerating chamber 30 — 40 minutes for cooling.
Cooling the dough is necessary to preserve layers of dough and butter.
In a non-cooled dough, the oil will be released when rolling, which will lead to a violation of the layering of the dough and the finished 'semi-finished product. The cooled dough is rolled out twice, folded and cooled.
After the last rolling, a sheet is obtained with a thickness of 4,5— 5 mm.
puff pastry manually produce similar, but lead-rollers in the same direction.
As a result of the fourfold folding and rolling of the layer of dough with a layer of butter, a multilayer layer is obtained. The rolled dough for a piece puff is cut into square or rectangular pieces of mass 90 — 95.
For tubes the dough is cut into strips of width and length 25 170 mm and spirally rolled on tubes.
To obtain a puff pastry tape using the machine brand MRT-60. Institute "Rospishepromavtomatika" developed a machine for the continuous production of puff pastry for bakery products, which can be used for? production of puff gesta for cakes and pastries. When using this machine design, a layer of butter is applied on the pre-formed * dough tape, and then the dough is rolled up into a roll. On the last operations is rolling puff pastry.
It is recommended to bake the semifinished product at a temperature of 215 — 250 ° С for 25 — 30 minutes to the humidity of the finished cooling of 7,5 ± 3% products. Baking products at temperatures below 210 ° C causes an increase in the duration of baking, which adversely affects the finished product. The product has a pale color and gives the impression of a raw product.
At an ambient temperature of the baking chamber 260 ° C, the baking time is shortened, but the color of the product and the upper crust turn out dark. The best quality of the semi-finished puff is obtained at the medium temperature of the baking chamber 240 - 250 ° С.
For semi-puff is not recommended to moisten the baking chamber, as this reduces the quality of a crumb ,, and surface finished products.
Puff products are always in high demand
Fig. 2. Flow-mechanized production line of puff cakes and pastries made by Orlandi:
nd, 6, 9 - the device for filling flour; 2,4 - three-cylinder forming machine; 3 - oil dispenser; 5, 8, // -– calibration shafts; 7, 10 - laminators; 12 - a device for piercing dough; 13 - slitting mechanism; 14 - a mechanism for feeding the dough on the oven band; 15 - the mechanism for cross cutting; 16 - sugar feed; / 7 — gas band furnace; 18 - mechanisms for stripping, alignment and lubrication of the ribbon of the furnace conveyor; 19 - high frequency Straifield oven; 20 - nylon net conveyor; 21 - cooling conveyor and device to accelerate the movement of the cake blanks; 22 - cream dispenser; 23 - the mechanism for folding cake blanks; 24 - rotary conveyor with a device for collection and removal of marriage; 25 - Rapidform machine for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride boxes; 26 - device to control the mass of the cake; 27 - machine for packaging products in heat-sealable cellophane; 28 - the machine for laying the cake in the box
population. However, their production is very limited due to the duration of the technological cycle and the use of heavy manual labor at almost all stages of the production of layered products. One of the most complex and labor-intensive processes in the production of puff cakes and pastries is the preparation of puff pastry.
At present, a flow-mechanized line from Orlandi (Italy) with full mechanization of all operations for the production of baked semi-finished product (Fig. 2, pos. 1 — 21) has been developed and introduced at the experimental bakery and confectionery plant “Cheryomushki”.
The line works as follows. The dough is prepared in a periodic manner in an intensive kneading machine with 2 blades. To obtain a test of a given temperature (14 ° C), water is cooled at a special installation, and the dough is prepared in a room with an ambient temperature 18 — 20 ° C.
Knead the dough after maturing directed to molding, in which a mixture of interlayer zhiromuchnoy (36 parts of the mass fraction of anhydrous oil and 8 parts flour).
The air temperature in the workshop where the equipment is installed for kneading dough, preparing a grease mixture, dehydrating the oil, forming a dough and making a cream should be 18 — 20 ° С. This is necessary to ensure the same temperature of dough and fat mixture at various stages of processing these semi-finished products.
Shaping the dough. The process of forming the test is as follows. The dough after vylazhivaniya special lift served in the bunker of the two molding machines. An extruder is installed at the bottom of each bunker, which allows to get a continuous test tape 800 mm wide. Between two layers of dough, a fat mixture is continuously injected with a dispenser. The resulting three-layer tape passes through three pairs of rolls and is sent to the laminator, which makes it possible to get another 6 — 7 layers of dough tape, depending on the degree of control. Then the dough passes through two pairs of rolls, the second laminator and finally rolled on three pairs of rolls, which allow to obtain a tape of a given thickness.
As each laminator passes, the test tape is rotated 90 °, which provides stress relief during rolling. Next, the dough sheet passes through the mechanisms of piercing, longitudinal and transverse cutting, a granulator of sugar and the mechanism for wetting the surface of dough pieces. Then a special mesh conveyor delivers the dough pieces to the kiln.
Bakery products. Ready-made semi-finished products are baked in the Turbetromo tunnel gas oven. The furnace conveyor is made in the form of continuous steel strip. Control and regulation of temperature in each zone is carried out automatically. Baking duration is 13 — 15 min. On the furnace conveyor, the mechanisms of automatic centering, stripping and greasing the steel tape with grease are installed. Baked blanks with 10 — 12% moisture are fed to a special nylon conveyor, which feeds them into the high-frequency Straifield oven, where the blanks are dried to a moisture content of 4 — 6%. This operation is necessary to ensure high quality finished products and long shelf life. Then the blanks are cooled.
Types and causes of marriage semi-puff.
Prefabricated nepyshny with thick layers, with a temper.
Reasons for rejection: insufficient cooling of the reservoir; the use of flour with weak gluten; low baking temperature; weak consistency of dough.
Test semi-finished product (layers) is deformed, has swellings.
Reasons for marriage: the dough layer was not punctured before baking (blistering), the edges of the sheet were not moistened with water (obtaining a deformed semi-finished product).
custard cake mix
A distinctive feature of custard semifinished product is that during the baking chamber formed inside the semi-finished product is then filled by a cream.
Preparation of the dough. Technological process of obtaining test for custard cakes comprises preparing
brewing for the dough from a hot mixture of butter, salt, water and flour during the mixing process, to which, after cooling, add melange to make brewed dough.
Then from the obtained dough is formed into blanks with their subsequent baking and cooling.
With the existing methods, dough brewing is prepared in open boilers as follows. The temperature of the brewed mass should be 80 — 85 ° С. The finished custard mass is transferred to a universal-type kneading machine, where its temperature drops to 70 — 75 ° С. Melange is gradually added to the machine and the mass is mixed at low speed for 15 — 20 minutes to obtain a uniformly mixed dough. The temperature of the finished test 35 — 38 ° С, humidity 52 — 54%.
The formation of the internal cavity in the semi-finished product is influenced by the consistency of the dough. The dough of high humidity or with insufficient brewing of flour spreads on the sheet and does not form an internal cavity. Thick dough of low humidity causes a slight rise of the semi-finished product with a ragged surface.
The cavity formation is greatly affected by the quality of the flour. For custard semi-finished products, it is recommended to use flour with an average content (28 — 36%) of strong gluten. When using flour with a weak gluten in a semi-finished product, no internal cavity is formed.
Shaping the dough. This process is carried out immediately after it is deposited from a linen bag with a round tube with a diameter of 18 mm on sheets covered with a thin layer of oil. For this purpose, the jigging machine of the construction of the institute "Rospishepromavtomatika" is used to form the blanks on the trays. To reduce the spreading of dough pieces and preserve their shape after baking, the temperature in the oven chamber (180 — 210 ° C) should be kept constant from the beginning to the end of the process. At high temperatures at the beginning of the process, a thick crust forms at the blanks, which prevents the moisture from leaving them evenly, resulting in large gaps on the surface of the blanks, their lifting worsens during baking, and thick walls are formed. To ensure baking of the internal cavity of the workpieces in the presence of thick crusts, the duration of the baking process is increased to 30 — 40 min. It is advisable to apply a variable temperature regime, increasing from 180 to 210 ° С in the middle of the process and then again decreasing to 180 ° С.
Fig. 3. Flow-mechanized production line cakes "Eclair"
1 - capacity for melange; 2 - pump for melange; 3 - sifter; 4 - Noria; 5, 7 - screw connectors; 6 - flour bin; 8 — autoweight 9 - the apparatus for welding semi-finished dough; 10 - volume dispenser for melange; 11 - kneading machine; 12 - the mechanism for applying grease to the belt of the furnace conveyor; 13 - ecleomatics machine; 14 - single ribbon oven; 15 - cooling device; 16 - semi-finished product removal mechanism; 17 - chain conveyor with cells; 18 - cream dispenser; 19 - Finishing Dispenser; 20 - the mechanism of removal of ready-made cakes; 21 - cooking pot; 22 - whipping machine for making cream; 23 - syrup dipstick for Charlotte cream; 24 - butter cutting; 25 - syrup pump; 26 - capacity for syrup; 27 - open cooking pot
Bakery products. In the baking process, there is intense evaporation of moisture. Water vapor encounters on its way resistance in the form of a viscous dough and a quickly forming crust, thanks to which a rapid rise of the semifinished product and the formation of an internal cavity in it occur. With this method
baking blanks have uneven humidity, higher inside the billet. To ensure a uniform redistribution of moisture throughout the billet, the cooling process is carried out for a long time — about 2—- 4 h. However, this cooling affects the quality of baked blanks, as the crust becomes soft. In addition, due to the lengthy cooling process, it is impossible to organize in-line mechanized production of these types of cakes.
VNIIKP employees have developed a method for producing brewed semi-finished products, which includes a number of new techniques that provide dough of uniform structure and viscosity that prevents the billet from spreading during the baking process, as well as larger billets with thin walls and a smooth surface. The new method allows you to eliminate all manual operations and implement a flow-mechanized production of cakes.
This method for the production of baked blanks is embodied in the machine-hardware scheme, which is part of the in-line-mechanized production line of Eclair cakes of the BEO brand (Fig. 3, item 1 — 15).
Work on the site of baked semi-finished product, part of the flow-mechanized production line cakes "Eclair", as follows. Butter, salt and water are loaded into the WPT digester equipped with a mechanical stirrer in the ratio
1: 0,02: 1,10. Continuously stirring the mixture, the temperature is raised to 100 ° C. Then, without interrupting the mixing, the amount of flour required by the recipe is loaded into the hot mixture.
With a one-time loading of flour into the hot mixture and intensive mechanical stirring at the very beginning of the mixing process, at a time when the flour particles have not yet swelled and the viscosity of the mixture is insignificant, uniform distribution of the components of the mixture and the formation of water shells around the flour particles are provided. This leads to a uniform swelling of the proteins of the starch flour and the formation of a strong homogeneous structure of welding. With a one-time loading of flour, the ratio of flour and moisture of the mixture is 1: 1. This leads to the restriction of the flour starch gelatinization process, which prevents the formation of sticky paste in brewing. It becomes possible to increase the humidity of the brew to 43 — 45%, without increasing stickiness, to increase the swelling of proteins and starch of flour and to obtain dough blanks with viscosity 400 — 450 Pas-s (at a speed gradient of 2 с-1) that prevents the spreading of billets from dough in the baking process.
Then the brew for the dough is mixed, add the melange, getting the brewed dough. The ratio of brewing for dough and melange is 1: 0,7, and the viscosity of the resulting brewed dough is g; equal to 200 — 250 Pa-s with a velocity gradient of 2 with-1.
In a homogeneous viscous mass, the brewing evenly distributes the melange, which is very important in the manufacture of brewed products, since melange is the builder of the workpiece. Then the dough is fed to the jigging machine WPT, which "carries out the formation of blanks. Molded blanks are placed on a moving belt.
At a number of enterprises (the Bolshevik factory, the experimental Cheryomushki confectionery and bakery plant) a new method of producing choux pastry has been introduced, which is as follows. The dough is prepared in two stages: at the first "stage, the blender machine mixes brewing with melange for 3 — 5 minutes to obtain a homogeneous mass. The final formation of the dough occurs in a thin layer when the dough is pumped into the jigging funnel.
Dough blanks are molded directly on the moving ribbon of the oven, on which they are baked. If there is a solid, homogeneous dough structure, the billets practically do not spread, which allows the baking process to be carried out at a lower temperature than with conventional methods. At the beginning of the baking process at a temperature 125 — 135 ° С, less intensive evaporation of moisture from the blanks and the formation of thin soft crusts occur, which do not interfere with the uniform release of moisture. This provides a more uniform rise of the blanks in the baking process and the formation of a larger internal cavity and volume in them, which, in turn, results in thinner walls.
To consolidate the structure of the preforms at the end of baking, during the last 6 — 8 min, the temperature is increased to 135 — 150 ° С. In this baking mode, billets are obtained in 25 — 33 min with uniform humidity throughout the billet, with greater density and volume, thin walls and smaller gaps on the surface than with the known methods. More durable and thin walls and a larger cavity ”and volume, in turn, provide cooling of the blanks for 20 — 25 minutes, which allows the creation of in-line mechanized production of cakes.
Types and causes of marriage custard semi-finished product.
Prefabricated without cavity inside, vague.
Causes of marriage: liquid consistency test; use flour with weak gluten.
The semi-finished product is bloated with a ragged surface.
Reasons for rejection: high baking temperature.
Semi-finished product with a bad lift.
Reasons for marriage: excessively thick dough; low temperature baking.
Protein-sbivnoy (air) semi-finished product
Protein-sbivnoy dough is produced by knocking down egg proteins with sugar in churning machines of periodic action until full saturation with air. In some cases, crushed nuts are added to the mass. The dough is prepared without the dough, so it is easy and brittle, with the exception of the semi-finished product for the Kievsky cake, which contains flour in the recipe, which somewhat increases the strength of the baked billet.
Cooking dough. The process of churning proteins should * be carried out in the complete absence of fat, as fat prevents the formation of foamy mass. For this purpose, the egg whites are carefully separated from the yolks, because the yolk contains fat, so the equipment for churning out the mass must be pre-washed with hot running water and then cooled with cold.
Egg whites should be cooled * to about 2 ° C before churning. Uncooled squirrels badly stray, and the baked semi-finished product turns out dense and vague. The cooled egg white is knocked down in a whipping machine for 2 — 3 min at a low, and then at a greater frequency of rotation of the whisk (180 rpm). When the initial volume of proteins increases 2 — 2,5 times, the whisk rotation speed is increased to 240 — 300 rpm and continue to be shot down until the initial volume of proteins increases approximately 7 times. The duration of churning proteins 30 — 50 min depending on their foaming ability.
The insufficient duration of churning proteins, as well as excessively long churning can lead to a dense, low-quality semi-finished product. A well-knit mass should be fluffy and have a structure of persistent non-dispersible foam.
In a well-knit foam with a density of 150 — 170 kg / m3, without stopping the churning, the granulated sugar is gradually added, first in small portions and finally large. Vanilla powder is added together with granulated sugar. After the addition of sugar, the churning is continued by 2 — 5 minutes, after which the mass is molded. Mass moisture 22 — 24%.
In the manufacture of semi-finished product for the “Flying” cake, the downed mass is mixed with crushed nuts. The optimum density of the downed mass is 400 — 420 kg / m3, and the optimum viscosity is about 20 Pa-s with a velocity gradient of 15 with -1. The duration of churning depends on the following main factors: the duration of storage and temperature of the protein, the amount of sugar in the recipe, the impurities of yolk and fat, the design of the churning machine, the rate of churning, etc.
Currently, for the production of protein-sbvennyh masses are used machines of periodic action, such as
MB-6, MB-35, BM-2, 724M, RI-80 (GDR). As a knocking organ in these machines, a halo is used, which has a planetary motion. The listed whipping machines differ from each other by the geometrical parameters of the whipping tank and the rim, as well as by the constructive execution of the drive movement of the working body (rim). But for all the machines one thing is characteristic: the whisk is attached to the last link of the planetary mechanism, thanks to which it acquires a complex movement consisting of a rotary around its axis and a slower rotary motion around the axis of the whipping vessel. The bottom of the whipping tank and the rim are spherical, so that in the mass in the process of churning horizontal and vertical currents are formed.
The saturation of the mass with air is due to the air being trapped in the protein-sugar mass from the cavity, which is formed in the mass inside the rotating whisk. This results in large bubbles, which are destroyed in subsequent collisions with the halo, forming smaller ones. This process continues uninterruptedly throughout the time of churning. As a result, the protein-sugar mass is uniformly saturated with air.
At the same time, the mass loses a certain amount of air due to the destruction of large bubbles in the surface layer. This process is promoted by vertical currents, under the action of which new air bubbles are constantly being carried to the surface. This explains the long time of churning (40 — 90 min).
The presence of vertical currents in batch machines is caused by the need to ensure the uniformity of the finished protein-sugar mass in the entire volume of the whipping tank, with the exception of the part of the spherical bottom, where the undersized mass remains.
Increasing labor productivity by increasing the load of the churning chamber does not give the desired results, since, saturating with air, the mass rises up, fills the entire volume of the churning tank and completely covers the tank, thereby stopping the entry of air into its internal cavity, which slows down the process of churning.
The disadvantages of the above machines of periodic action are: the impossibility of obtaining masses with stable, predetermined properties in the whole volume; periodic manual loading and unloading, worsening working conditions and reducing productivity; the formation of a “dead zone” (under-battered mass) at the bottom of the tank due to the imperfection of the shape of the stitching container and, as a result, the deterioration of the quality of the crushed protein-sugar mass.
In VNIIKP, work was carried out on the transfer of sbilalnyh machines from periodic to continuous operation. This allows for the complete mechanization of the manufacturing process.
Fig. 4. Vertical whipping machine
to produce whipped flour pastry masses and obtain them with predetermined stable properties; to increase labor productivity and improve its conditions due to the rejection of periodic manual loading and unloading; reduce the loss of raw materials; to improve the quality of dough and baked semi-finished product by ensuring high final homogeneity, increasing the dispersion of the air phase and reducing the density of the test.
Designed by VNIIKP MB-60 churning machine (fig.4) works as follows.
Pre-blended components are continuously fed through the bottom to the 1 whipping tank.
The mixture, captured by the lower helical section of the cylindrical rim 4, is additionally mixed in the process of capture. This achieves maximum homogeneity of the mixture of components before churning. When the mixture rises to the cylindrical portion of the corolla, the process of churning begins. Due to the cylindrical shape of the tank and the rim in the mass, only horizontal currents arise at the pressure of the rim. Knocked protein-sugar mass rises up due to a decrease in density and the forced supply of a mixture of raw materials, creating backwater. The upper spiral portion of the corolla contributes to raising the mass of the knocked to the discharge window 5. The 3 impeller contributes to the unloading of the finished mass, throwing it to the 5 discharge window. In addition, during the movement of the corolla, the impeller destroys the arch and creates a funnel in the mass, increasing the surface of contact of the mass with air, which accelerates the process of churning. The absence of vertical currents also contributes to the acceleration of the churning process, since air losses in mass due to the emission of large air bubbles onto the surface are reduced, which improves the quality of the finished mass, since there is no release to the surface of undersized mass from the lower layers.
The construction of the 1 whipping tank and the 6 discharge chute allows you to smoothly adjust the knocking process by changing the mass dwell time in the 2 churning machine by moving the 6 chute vertically, which overlaps the 5 unloading box in the 1 dump container.
Using the described whipping machine allows you to:
- To mechanize the process of manufacturing whipped protein-sugar mass and ensure its production in a continuous way with predetermined properties.
- To increase labor productivity and improve its conditions by eliminating periodic manual loading and unloading.
- Reduce the loss of raw materials due to the continuous process of obtaining the protein-sugar mass.
- More efficient use of the useful area of the shop.
The creation of a continuous-action whaler allowed the development of a station for the continuous preparation of whipped protein-sugar mass (Fig. 5).
The work of the machines and mechanisms that make up the station of continuous preparation of whipped protein-sugar mass, as follows.
One of the screw vibrating dispensers continuously delivers granulated sugar to the mixer. From the mixer, a homogeneous mass, which is a homogeneous mixture of protein and granulated sugar, is fed by a dosing pump through a nozzle into the chamber of a whipping machine. Selection knocked protein-sugar mass is in the upper part of the whipping tank through the tray. A mixer is attached to the discharge chute, into which any additional bulk component (flour, crushed nuts, etc.) can be fed.
The design of continuous vibration dampers for
bulk components provides accurate dosing order of ± (1,3 — 1,5)%.
The presence of a horizontal mixer ensures the stability of the churning process.
The design of the horizontal mixer for pre-mixing of components provides for the loading of components and the selection of the mixture from opposite sides of the working chamber.
In this case, selection takes place above the axis of the horizontal shaft at a distance equal to the radius of the blade, i.e. in the zone of maximum velocity gradients. This increases the residence time of the mixture of components in the mixer, allows you to get the maximum dissolution of granulated sugar in the liquid phase and uniform distribution of components. Maximum preliminary dissolution of granulated sugar in the liquid phase in a horizontal mixer ensures reliable stable operation of the metering pump and obtaining a mixture of normal quality.
To improve the degree of churning of the protein-sugar mass in a horizontal mixer, a water jacket is provided for thermostating the mixture of components, which improves the quality of churning.
In addition, the presence of a horizontal mixer ensures the preparation of the protein-sugar mass in stages of the process. Dissolving sugar in the first stage leads to a decrease in the duration of churning, thereby increasing the productivity of the machine in the second stage.
Station continuous preparation of the protein-sugar mass is as follows.
Protein from the supply tank enters a constant-level tank, from where a plunger dosing pump is fed into a horizontal mixer. At the same time, granulated sugar in the ratio 1: 2,67 comes here from the screw-vibrating batcher.
The resulting mixture is continuously fed by the dosing pump to the lower part of the cylindrical tank of the churning machine, where continuous churning of the protein-sugar mixture occurs with a cylindrical rim. Then the downed protein-sugar mixture is mixed with a nut or other filler.
Industrial operation of continuous cooking stations for whipped flour confectionery masses at the Moscow experimental confectionery and bakery plant. Cheryomushki showed their high efficiency and reliability in work.
Shaping the dough. The resulting protein-sbivnogo mass should immediately be fed to the dosing and molding, as with long-term standing, the quality of the mass decreases due to the removal of air from it, and as a result, the density increases and the dimensional stability deteriorates. When dosing and molding it is impossible to expose the mass to excessive pressure, since this also causes a deterioration in the quality of the mass due to the removal of air.
Forming cake blanks is carried out manually by separating the mass from the bag through a round tube into sheets, greased with a thin layer of fat and slightly dusty with flour.
Mass for cakes such as "Flight" is smeared with a stencil on sheets, previously lined with paper.
In a number of factories, when forming blanks for cakes of the type “Flight” and “Kievsky”, stencils in the form of iron rings are used, which are placed on sheets, filled with weight, and then leveled with a knife on top.
At the experimental confectionery and bakery plant “Cheryomushki”, a machine with a movable carriage made by the Nagema company (GDR) is used for mechanized production of cakes for the Polet cakes, the main working bodies of which are: belt conveyor, table and spreading carriage. The conveyor passes under the stove with a window. At the moment of forming the conveyor on which the sheets of paper are laid ,, stops and the paper is pressed against the bottom surface of the plate. At this time, a carriage with a container filled with protein-whipped mass moves over the hole on the upper side of the plate. At the moment the container passes over the window, a layer of mass remains on the paper.
The window size corresponds to the dimensions of the workpiece. Due to the fact that the mass obtained in a continuous way, is more resistant and the workpiece does not spread in the baking process, there is no need for subsequent trimming of the edges. This reduced returnable waste by 3 — 4%.
Bakery products. Protein-whipped semi-finished products are baked at low temperature (110 — 135 ° С), which provides normal pro-bakedness and gives the finished product a characteristic white color. A higher temperature of the baking chamber leads to a darkening of the surface, unsatisfactory cooking with the formation of a crumby crumb.
The duration of baking depends on the type of semi-finished product and is for small pieces 20 — 30 min., For cakes “Flight” 60 — 90 min. The moisture content of the semi-finished product is 3,5 ± 1,5%. Baked cake mix is cooled for 30 — 35 minutes to ambient temperature and then removed from sheets or paper.
Types and causes of the air semi-finished product marriage
Prefabricated low, vague.
Causes of marriage: insufficient or poor protein churning;
the boiler and the whisk are poorly rinsed from grease; poor protein quality; prolonged stay on a sheet of deposited cakes before baking.
Darkening of the semi-finished product.
Reason for rejection: high baking temperature.
Waffle dough should have a liquid consistency, which ensures a good dosage and quick distribution of dough over the surface of flat wafer forms.
Preparation of the dough. To obtain a dough of liquid consistency, it is necessary to create certain technological conditions during dough kneading, which limit the sticking together of separate scattered particles of gluten of flour. The dough is kneaded so that at the moment of contact with the liquid around each flour particle a hydrated shell is formed, which prevents the swollen particles of gluten from coming together and sticking together. For this purpose, during the periodic kneading of the dough, the flour is loaded gradually, in the 3 — 4 reception.
With the simultaneous loading of all the flour into the kneader as a result of the uneven distribution of water in the flour mash, a thick, tightened dough is formed.
Technological parameters play a crucial role in the formation of the test. So, by changing the humidity of the dough, you can change the thickness of the hydrated shell around the particles of gluten. With a decrease in the humidity of the dough and, consequently, a decrease in the thickness of the hydration shell, the stability of the system decreases with the formation of aggregates of flour particles. With increasing humidity, baking duration increases and productivity of ovens decreases.
Temperature also affects the viscosity of the dough and, consequently, the spreading of the dough according to the shape of the oven. The most favorable is the temperature 15 — 20 ° С. At temperatures above 20 ° C, the viscosity of the dough increases due to the large swelling of the gluten proteins, which leads to a decrease in the quality of the wafers.
The duration of the kneading also affects the quality of the dough. When kneading dough mixers of periodic action with a capacity of 300 l with T-shaped blades and a rotational speed of 180 rpm, the optimum mixing time is 18 — 20 min. In this case, a well-mixed and unbaked dough of a creamy consistency is obtained. With a shorter dough kneading, an uneven thick consistency is obtained, which is reflected in its dosing by the pump into wafer forms.
The continuous method of kneading waffle dough has several advantages compared with the periodic. This method is more effective because it allows you to mechanize manual labor-intensive operations, reduce the loss of raw materials, improve the quality of products, improve sanitary and hygienic working conditions, increase labor productivity and transfer the production of wafers to the in-line method.
Preparation of dough in a continuous way is carried out by preliminary preparation of emulsions from all components of the formulation, with the exception of flour, and subsequent * mixing it with flour.
The preparation of the emulsion is carried out as follows. A batch emulsifier with T-shaped blades with a rotational speed of 270 rpm is first loaded with yolk or melange, previously diluted in water in the ratio 1: 1, then vegetable oil, food phosphatides, sodium bicarbonate as 7,5% solution, salt and stirred for 10 — 15 min. Approximately 5% of the total amount of water used to knead the dough is added to the resulting mixture, and 5 min is mixed for a while. The result is a concentrated emulsion, which before use for kneading dough diluted with the remaining amount of water.
At the plant "Rot-Front" with 1963, the first in the USSR station for the continuous preparation of wafer dough using a two-section machine of continuous action and periodic preparation of the diluted emulsion is in commercial operation. This emulsion is prepared by mixing the concentrated emulsion with the remaining prescription amount of water in tanks with a vertical arrangement of the mixing body.
Further technological operations are carried out as follows. Flour is dosed by a tape volumetric dosing unit, which is a vertical shaft, the bottom of which is the conveyor belt. Flour from the mine is carried away by a conveyor belt in the form of a layer, the thickness of which is regulated by raising the vertical flap.
In the prechamber, the flour is premixed with the emulsion. The chamber is a stainless steel tank in which the shaft rotates with T-blades located on it along a helix. Shaft speed 210 rpm As a kneading chamber, a lipstick machine with a rotational speed of the kneading organ 250 r / min is used. The prechamber is located above the kneading chamber and is connected to it by a nozzle.
The two-section kneading machine, operated at the Rot-Front combine, allowed for the first time a continuous process.
In recent years, in order to improve the quality of the wafer dough and intensify the process of formation of its structure, mixers have been used using intensive mechanical vibrations (vibrations).
Unlike other mixers, vibratory mixers provide simultaneous horizontal and vertical product movement, which provides highly efficient mixing with a rather short duration of the process.
Under vibration conditions, an increase in the activity of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium, the destruction of bonds between the swollen particles and the formation of thinner water shells around the particles leads to an increase in the mobility of the system even when the humidity of the test is reduced by 1,5 — 1,8%. Consequently, the moisture content of the waffle dough with a vibro-mixture can be reduced from 65 — 67 to 62 — 64%.
As a result of the scientific substantiation of the technological mode of obtaining wafer dough with predetermined final properties and structure, the VNIIKP developed a station for the continuous preparation of wafer dough SHV-2T (Fig. 6) using a continuous mixer as the main element.
Rational technology in the first stage involves the preliminary preparation of concentrated
Fig. 6. Station of continuous preparation of the wafer ShV-2T test
emulsion. In the 3 mixer, phosphatides (in the form of an emulsion), vegetable oil, egg products, sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate soda), and salt, which are mixed for 15 — 20 minutes, are successively loaded. Then, to completely dissolve the soda and salt, add a 2 — 2% prescription amount of water with a 5 batch dispenser and mix it again for 3 — 5 minutes until a fine emulsion is formed. The components introduced into the mixture make up a small part of the total formulation, which makes it possible to achieve a homogeneous distribution in the volume of the concentrated emulsion.
To obtain water at a temperature of 8 — 10 ° C, it is pre-cooled in an 1 tank.
From the mixer, a concentrated emulsion enters an intermediate tank — a filter. A fundamentally new technological approach is to obtain a diluted emulsion in a thin layer in the second stage in a continuous mode of operation. For this purpose, a plunger dosing pump for concentrated 4 emulsion and a plunger dosing pump for 5 water are used, by means of which these components are continuously fed into a vertical 6 homogenizer, in which due to centrifugal force the emulsion and water are thrown to the walls and due to the resulting turbulent motion are mixed with a high degree of homogeneity.
The station for the supply of flour included a screw vibrating dispenser of continuous action 8, the use of which allowed to achieve high dosing accuracy (on the order of ± 1,3%) due to averaging the degree of flour density and improving its transportation. Flour is fed to the 8 dispenser with a 7 screw.
In addition, vibrational vibrations contribute to the destruction of flour aggregates, which is also a prerequisite for improving its operation and improving the dosing accuracy. From the 6 homogenizer, the emulsion is continuously fed to the 9 funnel of the 10 mixer. Flour is fed there with the 8 worm conveyor.
The mixing of the components is carried out in a continuous twin-screw mixer.
Continuous intensive mixing of the diluted emulsion with the flour ensures the formation of the dough structure during 13 — 15 c. The dough then flows into the intermediate tank with the 11 filter, and from there the 12 pump is pumped to the waffle furnace tanks.
Molding and baking. The liquid consistency of the wafer dough is necessary to achieve high dosing accuracy when applying the molding test.
Waffle dough is molded directly into the mold of the oven. Wafer sheets are baked by the contact method between metal plates with a gap in 2 — 3 mm. The most widely used semi-automatic furnaces of the company “Nagema” (GDR) with 24 and 30 cast-iron forms, mounted on a chain conveyor.
Each form has four rollers on its axes, on which it moves along guides. Forms are interconnected by earrings and form a continuous chain. The edges of the forms are tightly pressed to each other, and along their perimeter there are a number of recesses to remove moisture and excess dough. The dough from the receiving tank of the oven with the help of a pump through a filling tube is dosed to the surface of the bottom plate of the form along its entire length. Then the top plate is automatically superimposed on the bottom plate, after which the baking process begins. During the complete turnover of the chain conveyor, waffle sheets are baked, the upper mold plate is automatically separated from the lower one and the sheets are removed from the mold. The plates can be smooth, figured or engraved, so that the wafer sheets acquire the appropriate shape, and their surface is a different pattern.
In the baking process it is necessary to remove a significant amount of moisture from the dough (180% by weight of dry matter). Due to the large evaporation surface in the wafer molds and the small thickness of the sheets, the baking process continues for 2 — 3 minutes at the surface temperature of the plates 150 — 170 ° С. The most intense moisture is observed at the beginning of baking.
The ovens used for baking wafer semi-finished products are available in two types: with gas and electric heating.
In gas furnaces along the chain conveyor movement, two gas burners are arranged in the form of tubes in such a way that first the forms move under the upper burners, which heat the lower plates, and then after turning the forms in the opposite direction over the two lower burners, which heat the upper plates.
In electric heating furnaces, the heating elements are located directly in the body of the plates, and the supply of electricity to the plates of the forms is carried out using movable contacts.
Forms of furnaces before filling them with dough should be heated and periodically lubricated with wax and grease to prevent sticking of the sheets. In case of strong adhesion of wafer sheets to the forms, it is necessary to heat them up to the melting point of wax or paraffin, then lubricate all the forms with melted wax or paraffin, then wipe each of them thoroughly.
The peculiarity of baking wafer semi-finished product is that the dough loosening is due to the rapid evaporation. The use of chemical leavening agents (sodium bicarbonate) slightly affects the formation of the porous structure of the sheet.
The process of baking waffles has its own specifics. From the first seconds of baking, waffle dough should receive the greatest amount of heat from the heating surfaces of the waffle mold. This will lead to intensive mass transfer in the contact layer.
At the beginning of the baking heat supply should be maximized, because baking is accompanied by the greatest moisture recovery.
At the end of baking, when the removal of adsorption-related moisture occurs, the cost of heat should be reduced, since an intense supply of heat leads to charring of the products as a result of a sharp increase in the surface temperature of the sheet adjacent to the wafer shape.
At the end of the baking process, the sheet is easily removed from the wafer shape, it has normal color and brittleness, which characterizes the end of the baking process.
The reason for the curvature of the sheet in the first minute after baking is the presence of a significant moisture gradient in the waffle sheet at the end of baking between the individual areas of the sheet. To obtain almost even sheets, they should be baked to a moisture content of 2,5% ± 2%, which provides a slight moisture gradient between the individual areas of the sheet.
Of great importance for obtaining wafer sheets of high quality is the process of cooling them after baking. In some enterprises, after baking, the wafer sheets are piled up and placed for a long baking (up to 10 h) in a warm chamber. With this method of vystoyka all sheets are bent, and some of the sheets are cracked. The temperature of the wafer sheets immediately after baking decreases rapidly (from 149 to 76 ° C) due to a significant temperature difference between the sheet and the surrounding air, as well as due to the large heat transfer surface. When the sheets continue to increase, when they are already in the stack, the heat transfer surface is significantly reduced, since the cooling is mainly due to the side surfaces, which leads to a slower cooling process. The temperature of the wafer sheets in the stack decreases to ambient air temperature in approximately 12 hours. At the same time, the edges of the wafer sheets that are in direct contact with air cool down faster than the middle part of the sheets.
In the process of sheet sheeting in stacks, it is not moisture leveling in separate areas of the sheet, but on the contrary, in wafer sheets with a very small moisture gradient between individual areas of the sheet, an increase in humidity gradient occurs. Therefore, the vystoyka sheets in piles can not prevent bending. Meanwhile, studies have shown that during the first 15, with a cooling, an intensive temperature drop occurs, then the temperature decreases at a slower rate and reaches the room temperature through 150 C.
Thus, it takes only 2,5 minutes to cool a single wafer sheet to room temperature, while cooling the sheets in stacks under the same conditions continues over 12 hours.
The cooling of the wafer sheet (each separately) at any temperature and relative humidity of the air in the room is the most rational cooling mode, since this increases the heat transfer area and as a result, the cooling time is significantly reduced compared to the cooling of the sheets in the stacks.
Currently, for cooling single sheets, the furnaces are supplied with chain transfer carriers.
Sugar semi-finished product is used for making cakes like sugar tubes and cylinders with cream.
Sugar semi-finished product is prepared by mixing all the raw materials provided by the recipe, and then baking thin cakes, which are given a certain shape when hot.
An approximate recipe for sugar semi-finished (in kg) is shown below.
Sugar sand, milk and melange are loaded into a sbaleva machine, 10 — 15 min is mixed until sugar is completely dissolved. Then, with this mixing, flour and vanilla powder are gradually added to this mass. Mixing flour lasts 1 — 2 min.
The finished dough should be evenly mixed, without lumps, ointment-like consistency. Humidity test 36 - 38%.
The dough is formed by spreading a thin layer (1 — 2 mm) onto a sheet, greased with fat, using a round or oval-shaped stencil. A stencil is placed on a sheet and a dough is spread into the hole, which is spread with a knife. Then the stencil is removed from the sheet.
The semi-finished product is baked at a temperature 200 — 210 ° С for 4 — 5 min.
Baked semi-finished product in the hot state is removed from the sheet and quickly rolled up into a cone-shaped tube. The semi-finished product in the form of cylinders is also rolled up in a hot condition with the help of a wooden cylindrical block or a hollow cylinder made of white tin.
After cooling for 10 — 15 min, the semi-finished product is freed from blanks, put into a metal rack socket and left to stand on 14 — 16 hours. When stored in a room with high relative humidity, the semi-finished product can become soft.
The baked semi-finished product has a low moisture content (3 ± 1%) and, due to the high content of sugar in the cooled form, becomes brittle. The semi-finished product has a glossy surface and yellow color.
In case of insufficient lubrication of the sheets with oil, bubbles form on the surface of the semi-finished product, and with abundant - the formed dough blurs and the semi-finished product turns out to be deformed.
Types and causes of marriage of sugar semi-finished
Semi-finished without gloss, with gray hair.
Causes of marriage: long standing before baking the dough spread on sheets of bread.
Semi-finished product with burnt or intensely painted surface.
Reasons for rejection: high temperature baking chamber.
Flapjacks with bubbles on the surface.
Causes of marriage: the presence of large insoluble in the test
sugar crystals that melt during baking; insufficient lubrication of sheets with oil.
Flapjacks are shapeless.
Reasons for rejection: butter is too abundant in greasing the sheets ;: the dough has spread to baking; deformed sheets.
Scones with dark and white spots ..
Causes of marriage: uneven spreading dough on the sheet; dents on the sheet, the dough layer in these places thickens.
In the manufacture of semi-finished kroshkovogo use crumb, obtained from scraps of biscuit, sand and puff pastries and cakes. The tiny semi-finished product “Dachny” is used to make “Amateur” type cakes.
Trim cakes and cakes are pre-ground into crumb on a roller machine or in a meat grinder. Determine the moisture content of the resulting crumb, as it is necessary to calculate the amount of water added during the dough kneading.
In a churning machine, sugar and melange are churned for 25 — 30 minutes, then crushed crumbs and all other raw materials, except for flour, are added and 15 — 20 minutes are mixed. After that add flour and mix 1 — 2 min. The finished dough should be evenly mixed, without lumps, moisture 30 — 32%.
Cooked dough is laid out in metal molds, oiled or lined with paper. The surface of the dough is covered with oiled paper in order not to burn the surface of the semi-finished product.
Baking is done at a temperature 190 — 200 ° С for 50 — 70 min. A higher temperature results in a burnt semi-finished product with a poorly cooked crumb.
Finished prefabricated use after vystoyka within 8 h.
Types and causes of the marriage of a semi-finished product.
The semi-finished product is dense with signs of temper.
Causes of marriage: the use of a significant amount
crumbs of sugar and custard tubes and scraps with a high content of cream or fat.