There are numerous variations in the composition of milk chocolates, dictated by requirements of cost and quality. Dairy Higher quality chocolates usually have a higher content ofи SMO and fats.
Below is an experimental formulation of soft milk of high quality chocolates. To study the preparation of confectionery products in this gas-fired boiler with a mechanical stirrer and can serve as a good tool
for the production of the popular confection. The experiment may be supplemented by the changes of some ingredients and manufacturing Fudge.
Water 3 kg
SugarBrown 4,5 kg
Glucose syrup (DE 42) 7,7 kg
Whole condensed milk with sugar 8,2
Sugar, white, granulated 4,5 kg
fat (melting point 32 ° С) 3,6 кг
All ingredients were placed in a pot and start the stirrer. Heat is conducted in Low heat until the sugar dissolves and complete mixing of the ingredients. Sugar and any solids collected on the walls of the boiler above the liquid level are removed after stopping the stirrer with a wet brush. Heating and mixing of a uniformly boiling mixture continue, increasing the heat, the level of which is determined experimentally: strong heating leads to burning and the appearance of dark particles in the mixture. The degree of boiling is determined by a hand thermometer, which must be stored in hot water before use. Then the heating is reduced, the stirrer is stopped, and the thermometer is quickly moved in the mixture until the temperature becomes constant. The boiling is continued and the measurement is repeated until the thermometer begins to show 118 ° C, then quenched fire few minutes stirring continued and the mixture was then discharged onto a cooling table. Note the color change by heating and cooling table.
Experiment 1. Sometimes the mixture is digested, and significantly, the temperature rapidly rises above 118 ° С. The first boiling (described above) can be part of the party to leave the boiler, while continuing heating until 135 ° C. The product thus becomes very dark. It can be "corrected" by adding boiling water and to 118 ° C. The end result will be totally different - there will be a strong, probably "burnt" taste / flavor and dark color. not recommended in such a way to correct the mistake. The sample can also be taken when the candy mass temperature reaches 127 ° C - will turn solid milk chocolates.
Experiments 2,3, 4. In these experiments, glucose syrup is replaced by:
a) low glucose syrup with DE;
b) a high glucose syrup with DE;
c) invert syrupit sahara.
In all cases, the mixture is cooked at 118 ° C, but the final product will vary considerably. A mixture comprising the low DE glucose will have an increased viscosity (visible in casting), and ultimately becomes more rigid and less sweet. Caramel containing high DE glucose, and more liquid will be sweet. Invert sugar gives a higher turnover and a darker color of the finished product; It will also be seen that on a cooling table where the product darkens considerably. The taste and aroma are also changing - some milk flavor is lost and there is a tendency to the appearance of bitterness.
5 experiment (obtaining Fudge). The formulation base mix is similar experiment 1 - glucose used with DE 42, but additionally added 3,22 kg sweet as described below.
The mixture was heated to 118 ° C, half of the other party is discharged into the boiler and cooled to 82 ° C, immersing in the boiler water. Half of the fondant added to the party at 118 ° C, and the other half - with 82 ° C. In each case, sweet well kneaded into the mixture, and then both the product discharged on a cooling table.
Milk mix with a sweet added at a lower temperature, will "stiffen" pretty quickly, and the second will remain soft for a long time. After the first 20 hours fudge will be quite loose (loose) texture, and the second will remain soft, although there are some signs of "hardening". When added to hot fudge mixture of sugar crystals in the fudge almost completely dissolved, and cooled portions persist and promote crystallization of sugar in the mixture.
The texture of milk chocolates
Milk may be a soft candy, a middle and a solid consistency with the following boiling ranges and humidity:
Consistency sodaYerzhan moisture%
кипения, ° С '
Upholstered 118-120 9-10
Average 121-124 7-8
Solid 128-131 5-6
The softer layer generally milk is used to coat bars and extruded confectionery layers.
When cooking in an open pot to control the moisture content by manual thermometer is rather difficult, since it is necessary to stop the stirrer, and the delay in obtaining readings not only gives an incorrect result, but also leads to overheating of the product at the surface of the boiler. Some dairy cookers have integral layer thermometers constructed so that they extend between the rotating blades, but these thermometers are often reserved as a mass of metal, which also give erroneous results.
The best temperature recording method - is its measurement using a thermocouple or resistance thermometer. These devices are provided with reliable sensors that can be placed in boiling product and cable connected with the device. In continuous cooking sensor is inserted into the mixture flow from the cooker and actuates the controller as described above in the section "Production of sweet."
Experienced confectioner is able to determine the hardness of the mixture, taking a small sample of the boiling mixture and then dip it into the water, although the value of this method is questionable.
The above values are dependent on the content QS and fat, and texture best evaluated using a penetrometer. Standard penetrometer used in the petroleum industry to evaluate the viscosity of the bitumen, may be adapted for caramel cooler (using a blunt needle or cone stable readings are obtained after maturing for 1-2 hours). In one modification is used spring-loaded penetrometer piston control dial (the adjustment may be carried out at ambient temperature). This device is mounted in the installation, and take into account the boiling point of the data. You can take a sample of the boiling mass of cool water and take readings after about 1 minutes.
There are a variety of formulations milk chocolates - containing less milk, reconstituted with milk with different fat without butter, and withnvert sugar instead of glucose ... They also include nuts (usually chopped), coconut, chocolate or raisins. The syrup recovered from the waste is often used in the recipe to replace part of the sugar and glucose, because milk chocolates - One of the few pastry, allowing the syrup to include this without compromising the quality.
The task of this book does not include consideration of a large number of recipes (see References for this chapter.); having mastered the basic principles of production, it is possible to experiment creatively. Here we will mention only substances that are added to change the normal texture of caramel.
Chewable candy is produced milk, including gelatin in an amount of about 120 45,3 g per kg of caramel. Pre produce swelling and gelatin in water before adding it to the end of cooking, the product is dissolved while heating.
Corn starch or modified ( eg, He maizo) Also leads to a change in texture and is added when boiling an aqueous suspension. These products help to prevent loss of milk candy form.
The third option - is the addition of frappe and a typical recipe used about 2, 5 kg frappe type Hyfoama per game caramel in 45,3 kg. For scrambled (aerated) Product low density frappe should be included without excessive agitation.
Much of what has been said about the milk chocolates, also applies to the production of the iris, but the latter in the formulation much less moisture content, milk and fat.
Hard caramel toffee usually cooked at a temperature of 149-152 ° C (moisture content of the product in this case is 2-3%). Solid iris ( "batter- Scotch") - a special type of iris, which contains only butter and sugar in addition to glucose. Typically, this product is added to the lemon flavor. A typical formulation and technology for producing solid iris:
Sugar 45,3 kg
Syrup Glucose 113 kg
Water 18 kg
Dissolve and simmer until 143-145 ° C
Then knead 3,5 kg of butter (salted) and lemon oil (1 fluid ounce, 29, 57 ml). The oil should be completely dissolved in the hot syrup.
With partially chilled ductile butterscotch can work just as with toffee and caramel.
"English" Iris, tiled nut candies
This candy confectionery products are characterized by a much lower fat and milk compared with the previously described dairy candy. They are usually prepared only with sugar or with a very low content of glucose. They are especially popular in the US, where the tile peanut candies are sold in large quantities. Nuts in the cooking syrup actually fried (final temperature is 152-155 FROM). Below are the formulation and production of high-quality technology products.
Sugar (white) 11,3 kg
Salted butter 9 kg
thats (adds) 71 g
Lecithin 28,3 d
Chopped raw almonds 2,26 kg
It is desirable to use stainless steel pot. Melt butter small, add water, sugar, salt and lecithin mix thoroughly under warming up until the temperature reaches a temperature 127 FROM. Then add chopped almonds and continue heating until the temperature reaches 152 ° C. At this stage, a noticeable darkening occurs between 152 and 155 ° C, and the mixture becomes more flowable. Quickly release the mixture on a cold table with a layer about 0,6 cm thick. This thickness is very important - if it is not observed, the iris becomes digested and takes on a burnt aftertaste. For the formation of tiles in the hot liquid iris, a dividing frame can be pressed. Modifications are possible with a reduced content of butter and other types of nuts. In this case, you can use a certain amount of glucose syrup with fried or unsweetened nuts. The degree of "roasting", obtained with the addition of nuts at different stages of the cooking process, allows you to get different taste options.
Fudge (jersey or Italian cream)
The experimental preparation of the fudge was described above. The appearance of a confectionery product called "fudge" is apparently associated with the occasional crystallization of a candy mass prepared with a high sugar content. And indeed, if a soft milk candy mass with a high sugar content is vigorously mixed, it is very likely that when it is cooled, crystallization will occur. This kind of crystallization is uncontrollable and gives a large grain, and after a while spots appear on the surface. More reliable results are achieved when crystallization is caused by the addition of fudge. At the same time, the fudge obtained as a result of rapid mixing is a product that gives the impression of "home", and it has its followers.
Taste, aroma and texture Fudge determined by the degree of boiling of the original breast mass and content of sweet. On Fudge also affects the crystallization of sugar and glucose ratio in the formulation of dairy mass - the more the sugar content, the faster the crystallisation.
Fudge crystallization can also be achieved by the addition of finely milled powdered sugar to the partly cooled candy mass weight. The result is a different texture, more brittle.
As with milk candies, you can add other ingredients to get different items to the faju. There is one important difference between milk candies and fudge - milk candy is essentially a fat emulsion in an amorphous syrup with a dispersed milk protein, and in the fudge there is a phase of solid crystalline sugar dispersed together with fat and milk protein in the phase of a saturated solution of sugar syrup and glucose . Therefore, fudge has much higher water activity, which should be borne in mind when wrapping and packing, or when using fudge as one of the components of complex products.
Chocolate fudge is very popular in the United States. It is prepared by adding a batch of lactic candy mass prior to cooling 5-8% chocolate liquor, and then in cooling, sweet.
Equipment for the production of lactic candy mass and Fudge
The equipment that was originally used for the production of caramel and toffee, is a simple running on gas or coke boiler. The technology was the same as that described above for the preparation of a pilot. Many bakers find that the heating gas or the fire - this is the only way to get true caramel UWCs / flavor.
Later, heating was replaced with fire jacketed boilers. The technology at the same time remained a periodic and caramelization is still good. Some firms, disappointed in continuous processes, mechanized production run with a lot of coppers and pipe lines.
Nevertheless, the study of the initial batch process showed the importance of the time factor when cooking. Maillard reaction occurring between milk protein, reducing sugars, and water, determines the final flavor and its intensity depends on the heating time, reducing the proportion sugar and water present.
In continuous processes currently use karamelizator allowing continuously flowing milk chocolates produced by the heater for about 20 minutes at a temperature close to the endpoint boiling breast mass. This ensures good caramelization.
There are several variants of continuous technology (general principle is shown in Fig. 19.15). Available in various types of cookers in the form of trays (Bath) - for example, heated inside the rotating "snail" in a heated pan or mixer in a heated bath steam. Basic caramel mixture moves along the tray during cooking (fig. 19.16). The same structure can be used for cooling.
Especially suitable for the production of Fudge trough the cooler, where sweet extruded into a cooling tray. This method produces a different product, and it is important to understand that Fudge pieces cut from the plate prepared as described above by using the boiler, characterized by brittleness and a continuous process (particularly extrusion) is a more soft paste.
In the case of continuous process it has been found to be useful fudge higher sugar content - the ratio of sugar to glucose syrup 10: 1 4 instead of the usual : 1 or 3: 1.
There are various designs of heat exchangers, thin film and the surface being cleaned. If you are going to use these cookers for the production of milk candy mass, it is necessary to consider the possibility of forming films on surfaces of burned milk products. In this case the heat transfer is substantially reduced and may appear dark particles in the final product. Removal of these films - a complex process that requires filling cooker concentrated solutions of alkalis and their careful washing.